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Byinshi ku mibereho y’Uruyuki

 Byinshi ku mibereho y’Uruyuki Uruyuki (ubuke: Inzuki; izina ry’ubumenyi mu kilatini: Apis ) ni udusimba tw’inigwahabiri tutagira amagufwa turangwa n’umubiri ugizwe n’ibice bitatu byuzuzanya aribyo; umutwe, ugaragaraho uduhembe tubiri tuzifasha guhuririza ibirukikije, amaso manini abiri azifasha kureba, n’umunwa. Mu muzinga hashobora kubamo ingabo 1500 kandi zikagaburirwa n’intazi. Akamaro kazo ni ako kwimya urwiru gusa, kandi urwimije urwiru ruhita rupfa. Ingabo ntiziryana, si byiza ko ziba nyinshi mu muzinga kuko zirya ubuki kandi zidakora.

Uruyuki ni agakoko gato kaguruka gakora ubuki.

Amoko y’inzuki

Amoko y’inzuki azwi cyane ni ayo mu bwoko bwa Apis mellifica, Apis dorsata, Apis florea na Apis cerana. Cyakora inzuki zikunze gukoreshwa mu buvumvu ni izo mu bwoko bwa Apis mellifica, nazo zikaba zigabanyijemo ibice byinshi, ukurikije uturere zigenda zibonekamo. Muri zo hari:

1. Apis mellifica : ziboneka mu karere k’inyanja ya Mediterane
2. Apis mellifica intermisa
3. Apis mellifica major : ziboneka mu Majyaruguru ya Afurika
4. Apis mellifica sahariensis
5. Apis mellifica lamarekii
6. Apis mellifica nubica : ziboneka muri Sudani na Misiri
7. Apis mellifica scutellata
8. Apis mellifica litorea
9. Apis mellifica monticola
10. Apis mellifica adansonii : ziboneka muri Afurika yo Hagati na Australia
11. Apis mellifica capensis
12. Apis mellifica unicolor
13. Apis mellifica jemmenitica
14. Apis mellifica remipes
15. Apis mellifica caucasica
16. Apis mellifica taurica
17. Apis mellifica cyprica : ziboneka mu karere ka Irani na Mediterane
18. Apis mellifica syriaca
19. Apis mellifica carnica
20. Apis mellifica linguistica

Muri izo nzuki zose, iziboneka mu Rwanda ni izitwa Apis mellifica adansoni, n’ubwo nta bushakashatsi bwakozwe muri urwo rwego. Hari ubundi bwoko bw’inzuki bita mu kinyarwanda ubuhura (mellipona depressives). Izo nzuki ntizigira urubori, nta n’ubwo zubaka ibinyagu, ahubwo zishyira ubuki mu bihuku by’imiswa, mu binogo byafukutse mu biti, cyangwa mu myenge igenda isigara mu nkuta z’amazu.

Imibereho y’inzuki

Inzuki zibaho ari umuryango urimo inzuki za ngombwa kandi ziziranye. Ziba zikuriwe n’urwiru. Urwiru rurangwa n’ubunini bwarwo, ruba ari rwo rwonyine rw’urugore rubyara kandi rwima inshuro imwe. Rwibikamo intanga-ngabo, zizahura n’intanga-ngore rufite. Rurama imyaka ine kandi rutera amagi ibihumbi bibiri (2000) ku munsi, ntiruryana rugaburirwa n’impashyi , igikoma cy’urwiru (gelée royale). Iyo rushaje rutera amagi make bigatuma inzuki ziba nke mu muzinga, icyo gihe ruvanwa mu muzinga maze impehe zisigaye zikirerera urundi. Ni byiza kurusimbura nibura buri myaka ibiri (2) kandi bigakorwa mu gihe gitangira izuba.Urwiru rushobora kororerwa hanze y’umuzinga rukazashyirwamo nyuma. Inziru 2 ntizibana mu muzinga, zirarwana kugeza rumwe rupfuye.

Ingabo

Mu muzinga hashobora kubamo ingabo 1500 zikagaburirwa n’impashyi. Akamaro kazo ni ukwimya urwiru, gusa urwimije ruhita rupfa, Ingabo ntiziryana iyo ari nyinshi mu muzinga si byiza kuko zirya ubuki kandi zidakora. Akenshi urwiru rushaje rubyara ingabo nyinshi, hari ubwo impashyi zanga kuzigaburira zikazirukana cyangwa zikazica. Mu ntangiriro z’igihe cy’izuba gusa nibwo urwiru rutera amagi avamo ingabo.

Ibikomoka ku nzuki

Ubuki
Insinda
Ibishashara
Urucumbu
Igikoma cy’urwiru

Amateka y’ubworozi bw’inzuki

Abanditsi b’ibitabo bavuga ko ubworozi bw’inzuki ari umwuga umaze igihe kinini cyane uzwi. Hari bamwe bemeza ko hashize imyaka miliyoni eshanu inzuki zibayeho ku isi, abandi bavuga ko babonye ibisigazwa by’inzuki zabayeho imyaka 3600 mbere y’ivuka rya Yezu; bamwe ndetse bemeza ko hari amoko y’inzuki yororerwaga mu Misiri imyaka 2600 mbere y’ivuka rya Yezu. Ahagana mu kinyejana cya 16 nibwo bamwe mu bagoronome Olivier w’i Sennes yatangiye kwita ku nzuki mu gitabo cye yise Theatre d’agriculture et menages des champs. Nyuma y’aho, ubworozi bw’inzuki bwafashe imyaka myinshi kugira ngo bugere uko tubuzi ubu. Muri icyo gihe Padiri mukuru w’i Carlsmark muri silesie yahimbye umutiba wa kijyambere ufite amakaderi, bashobora gukura mu mutiba bakayasubizamo nta kibazo. Cyakora uwo mutiba wagiye usubirwamo na Langstroth ariwe wahimbye umutiba wa kijyambere wanitiriwe izina rye, ubu ukaba warageze n’iwacu i Rwanda. Hari n’abandi bagize ibyo bagenda bongeraho, nk’uwitwa Dadant, Layens n’abandi.

Mu Rwanda

Ubworozi bw’inzuki bwagaragaje ko bushobora guteza imbere ababukora, bubushyizemo imbaraga, ariko cyane cyane bitaye ku buryo bwo guhakura ubuki bufite isuku kandi butarimo umwotsi.

Mu rwego rwo gufasha abari muri uyu mwuga no kuwuhindura kugira ngo ujye uzanira inyungu abawukora, muri 2008 Leta yafashaije kugura imitiba 9,000 igenewe kugezwa ku bavumvu. Leta kandi yabafashije gushyiraho urwego rw’igihugu ruhuza abavumvu (Conseil National pour la Sauvegarde des Abeilles), kugira ngo babone uko bazajya bungurana ibitekerezo kuri uyu mwuga no ku masoko bakoherezaho ubuki basaruye.

Muri iyi myaka itanu ishize, umusaruro w’ubuki ukaba wiyongera ku buryo bushimishije. Figure 12 irerekana uburyo umusaruro w’ubuki wiyongereye kuva kuri toni 550 muri 2000 kugeza kuri toni 1600 muri 2007

source:
http://rw.wikipedia.org/

Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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