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Ese wabwirwa n’iki ko wariye ibiryo bihumanye?

 Ese wabwirwa n’iki ko wariye ibiryo bihumanye? Muri iyi minsi hasigaye havugwa ihumana ry’ibyo turya bitewe n’ukuntu bimwe mu biribwa bibikwa mu mafirigo ndetse n’uko bitegurwa mbere y’uko bigaburirwa abantu. Usanga muri iki gihe kurira mu maresitora cyangwa amahoteli amwe n’amwe akabije mu mwanda ari ukwikururira ibyago byo kurwara bitewe n’inzoka zo munda ndetse umuntu akaba yanahakura izindi mikorobe zangiza amara zikomotse ku ndyo iteguye nabi cyangwa se yarengeje igihe.

Inzoka zo mu nda z’amoko atandukanye ni imwe mu ngaruka ziterwa no kurya indyo ifite umwanda. Usibye izo nzoka zo mu nda, umuntu wariye ibiryo bihumanya ashobora kugaragaza ibimenyetso bitandukanye nyuma yo gufungura ibiryo bihumanya. Ibyo bimenyetso bishobora guhita byigaragaza nka nyuma y’iminota 30 cyangwa se mu gihe cy’amasaha 48. Ibyo bimenyetso bishobora kuza bifite ingaruka simusiga zituma uwariye iyo ndyo ashobora no kubura ubuzima mu gihe adatabariwe hafi bitewe n’ubwoko bw’agakoko runaka kahumanije ibyo yariye. Ubundi nabwo usanga umuntu akomeza kumererwa nabi azengera. Ku bw’amahirwe ashobora gukira nyuma y’iminsi itatu ariko igihe cyose biba byiza iyo wariye cyangwa wanyoye ibihumanye wakwihutira kwa muganga.

Bimwe mu bimenyetso simusiga bizakwereka ko wariye cyangwa se wanyoye ibihumanye harimo kugira isesemi n’ikizibakanwa bidasanzwe aho umuntu aciragura bikabije cyane. Uku kugira isesemi gutuma umuntu atangira kuruka, akaribwa mu nda yokerwa cyane, akumva azengera yanakonyaguritse ingingo. Inshuro nyinshi iyo ibimenyetso nk’ibi bimaze iminsi ibiri umuntu ashobora gutangira gucibwamo.

Bitewe n’icyahumanije ibyo biryo cyangwa ibyo kunywa, umuntu ashobora kugira umuriro, agatengurwa ndetse agacika n’intege. Kenshi abahumanywa n’agakoko ka salmonella batangira kwituma amaraso, bakagira n’umwuma udasanzwe ku buryo imyakura yabo itangira gucika intege ntibe igikora neza. Ibi bimenyetso bishobora kwibasira umuntu umwe cyangwa bigafatira itsinda ry’abantu icyarimwe aribwo bihita bihinduka icyorezo gishobora gucura inkumbi benshi igihe inzego z’ubuzima zidahise zitabarira hafi.

Nk’uko bitangazwa na CDC, ikigo cy’abanyamerika cyo kurwanya no gukumira ibyorezo, muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika honyine umuntu umwe muri batandatu ararwara kubera kurya ibiryo byanduye. Imibare yasohowe mu mwaka wa 2001 yerekana ko ku isi yose miliyoni 48 barwara kubera kurya ibiryo bihumanye, abantu 128,000 bagashyirwa mu bitaro naho abandi 3,000 bagapfa bazize kurya ibiryo n’ibinyobwa bihumanye buri mwaka.

Bimwe mu bihumanya ibiryo

Bimwe mu bihumanya ibyo turya bikaba byatugiraho ingaruka zikomeye harimo n’urupfu twavuga udukoko dukwirakwiza indwara ndeste n’uburozi bujya mu byo kurya cyangwa kunywa biteguwe nabi.

Muri utwo dukoko twanduza ibyo kurya harimo virusi, bagiteri ndetse n’utwo mu bwoko bwa parasite. Bagiteri iyo zigiye mu byo kurya zisigamo uburozi bugenda bukibasira amara maze akazana udusebe bityo ntabe akibashije kuvana ibitunga umubiri w’umuntu mu byo aba yariye ndetse n’amazi umubiri ukenera. Ibi rero bihita biba intandaro y’uko uwafashwe atangira gucibwamo.
Zimwe muri bagiteri zizwi cyane mu guhumanya ibyo kurya ni salmonella itera indwara yitwa salmonellae. Iyi ndwara ngo ikaba itwara amadolari agera kuri miliyoni 365 buri mwaka mu kugura imiti iyivura ku isi yose. Iyi ndwara ya salmonellae iterwa ahanini no kurya ibiryo bidahiye cyangwa se bitetse nabi nk’amagi, ibiguruka byose, ibikomoka ku mata, amafi n’ibindi. Mu zindi bagiteri zihumanya ibyo kurya bitewe n’uko byateguwe hari campylobacter nayo itera gucibwamo, isesemi n’ibindi bimenyesto byose uwariye ibihumanye agaragaza. Mu zindi harimo Staphylococcus aureus igira uburozi bukaze cyane butuma umuntu azengera, akaruka bikabije cyane ndetse akaribwa mu nda. Mu gihe umuntu ariye imigati ikozwe mu bikomoka ku mata yanduye, makaroni, salade idatunganye ikozwe mu birayi n’amakaroni ndetse n’amagi, igihe umuntu afashe ibikomoka ku mata byanduye cyangwa byarengeje igihe ahita yibasirwa n’iyi bagiteri iba yabihumanije.

Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli (E coli) zitera umuntu kuba yarwara impyiko igihe yariye ibiryo byahumanijwe nazo. Shigella (traveler’s diarrhea) ikomoka ku mwanda w’abantu ikaba ari bagiteri inatera umuntu kwituma amaraso igihe yariye ibiryo byahumanijwe nayo. Listeria monocytogenes ishobora gutuma umuntu arwara menengite igihe ariye ibiryo byahumanijwe nayo iri mu bihumanya ibiryo cyane cyane inyama, imbuto, imboga ndetse na za foromaje byose biteguye nabi cyangwa byarengeje igihe. Hari kandi na bagiteri yitwa Clostridium botulinum (botulism) izahaza igice cy’imyakura aho umuntu uwariye ibyahumanijwe nayo adashobora kureba neza ndetse no guhumeka neza aribyo bimutera ikibazo gikomeye. Iyi ikaba yibasira abana bakiri bato mu gihe bariye ubuki, za sosiso, n’amafi byanduye.

Naho ihumana riterwa n’uburozi rituruka ku bimera bimwe abantu bashobora kwibeshyaho bakabirya bityo bikabazengereza. Muri byo hari ibiyege (mushrooms). Ibi ni ibyo kwitonderwa kuko uwabiriye no gupfa yapfa bitewe n’ubwoko bw’ibyo yariye. Ubwoko bumwe bw’ibi bimera bugira uburozi bukaze cyane buzengereza ubwonko maze uwabiriye agatutubikana, akaba yanavugishwa ndetse akanabura ubwenge.

Ubwoko bumwe na bumwe bw’amafi nabwo ni ubwo kwitonderwa kuko hari atera ibibazo bidasanzwe iyo ateguwe nabi. Twavuga nk’ayitwa tuna ashobora atera umuntu kugira isesemi, kuzengera no kugira uduheri ku gice cyo hejuru cy’umubiri ndetse akanishimagura umubiri wose mu gihe yayariye adateguye neza bitewe na bagiteri yitwa scombroid.
Imiti yica udukoko iterwa mu bihingwa bimwe nk’imbuto cyangwa imboga nk’inyanya nayo ni nyirabayazana wo kuba umuntu yagira ibibazo igihe abiriye bitakorewe isuku ihagije cyangwa se bitatetswe neza. Kenshi usanga umuntu agira ikizibakanwa, kurwara umutwe, kugira ibikezikezi mu maso ndetse no gususumira.

Ibyo ukwiye gukora igihe wariye ibiryo bihumanye

Mu gihe wariye ibiryo bihumanya, ugitangira kubona ibimenyetso hari ibyo ukwiye guhita ukora kugira ngo utiyongerera ibibazo. Muri byo harimo ibi bikurikira:
• Irinde kurya ibiryo bikomeye igihe wumva ufite isesemi cyangwa uri kuruka. Ahubwo ihate ibinyobwa bihagije.
• Fata intama nke z’ibyo kunywa kandi ubikore buri kanya kugira ngo amazi ataza kugushira mu mubiri ukagira umwuma
• Muri icyo gihe wafashwe n’ingaruka zo kurya ibiryo bihumanye, irinde ibinyobwa birimo alukoro, wirinde ikawa cyangwa ibinyobwa birimo isukari.
• Iyambaze indimu cyangwa izindi mbuto zo mu bwoko bw’indimu kugira ngo bikugabanirize kumokorwa,
• Uko ugenda wihata ibinyobwa isesemi igenda igabanuka noneho ukaba watangira gufata icyo kurya ariko ukagenda ufata duke duke. Nk’uko twabivuze hejuru, ugomba kurya ibiryo byoroshye nk’umuceri, polici, umugati, ibirayi, ibinyampeke birimo isukari nke, inyama zidafite ibinure, inkoko idakaranze n’ibindi byoroshye.

Mu gihe ubona ukomeje gukomerezwa ni byiza kwihutira kwa muganga aho uhabwa imiti ivura abahumanijwe n’ibyo kurya nyuma yo gusuzumwa hakamenyekana ibyateye uko guhumana.

Bumwe mu buryo bwo kwirinda ihumana ry’ibyo kurya

Nubwo abantu bakunze kwishuka cyane bavuga ko hica umutongo kandi ko ngo hapfa uwavutse bityo bakarya ibyo babonye byose ndetse ntibanite ku isuku yabyo n’intoki zabo, birakwiye ko abantu bagira umuco wo gutunganya neza ibyo kurya. Birakwiye kandi ko abantu bagira umuco wo kumenya guteka neza ibyo kurya bigashya ndetse bakanamenya uburyo bwiza bwo kubika ibiryo cyane ko iyo byangirikiye mu bubiko ariho bizana twa dukoko dutandukanye tuzahaza umuntu ubiriye.
Mu gihe ugura ibyo kurya cyangwa kunywa, reba neza niba bitararengeje igihe cyabyo cyo gucuruzwa. Ikindi ugomba kwitaho ni ukureba niba icyo bipfunyitsemo kitarangiritse.

Mu kubika ibyo kurya mu byuma bikonjesha, ugomba kubikamo ibyangirika vuba kandi nabwo ntibirenzemo iminsi itatu bitarakoreshwa. Muri ibyo biryo bitakagombye kumara igihe kirekere muri za firigo harimo inyama z’amako yose. Ni byiza ko inyama zishyirwa mu gice cy’ubutita cya firigo aho ubushyuhe byibuze bwakagombye kuba buri kuri dogere 17.7 munsi ya zeru kugira ngo bigabanye gukura kw’udukoko twazizamo.

Mu gutegura ibyo kurya, abantu bagomba kwitwararika ku isuku yabyo ndetse n’isuku y’intoki zabo. Aha birakwiye ko abantu batora umuco wo gukoresha amazi asukujwe umuti wa siro cyangwa se indi yifashishwa. Ikindi kandi n’uko abantu cyane cyane abakora umwuga wo guteka mu bikoni bitandukanye bagomba gukaraba intoki mbere na nyuma yo gutunganya inyama mbisi ndetse n’inyama z’inkoko, ndetse ukanagirira isuku aho watunganirije izo nyama. Ugomba kandi koza icyuma waba wakakatishije izo nyama ukoresheje isabune n’amazi ashyushye kugira ngo wizere neza ko bagiteri zivuyeho. Ikindi kandi bakwiye gukora ni ugukaraba intoki igihe cyose bavuye mu bwiherero kuko zimwe muri bagiteri cyangwa utundi dukoko twanduza ibyo kurya dukomoka ku mwanda nk’uwo. Ikindi abantu bakwiye kwitaho ni imibikire y’ibiryo muri firigo aho usanga kubivangavanga bituma za bagiteri zibikwirakwiramo byoroshye.

UMUGANGA.com

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