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Gutangiza ikigega cy’imbuto cy’abaturage

 Ikigega cy’imbuto irinda kubura kw’imbuto zo muri ako gace. Niyo nkomoko y’imbuto mu gihe kihutirwa nk’iyo izindi zatewe n’indwara, udukoko n’ikirerre kibi. Aha, uramenya uko ikigega c y’imbuto gikoreshwa n’uburyo wayikora.

 

Ibigendanye n’ikigega k’imbuto cy’abaturage

Kubera iki tubika imbuto?
Nta mbuto, ibihingwa nti byakura. Igihe cy’ingenzi, utarobanuye imbuto, ibihingwa ntibyakura neza. Gukoresha imbuto z’ubwoko bunyuranye byemeza ko ibi bihingwa bizabaho neza. Ko izo mbuto zizaboneka igihe cyose.
Ni ukubera iki gutoranya imbuto ari ingenzi?
Hari ubwoko bwinshi bw’ibihingwa n’ibiti. Urugero hari ubwoko bwinshi bw’ibishyimbo kandi buri bwoko bufite ibibugize bitandukanye. Bimwe bifite ibara ry’umuhondo, ibindi ni umweru. Bimwe ni birebire, ibindi ni bigufi. Bimwe bifite uburyo bwo kwirinda udukoko, mu gihe ibindi bitabufite n’ibindi
Ubwoko bw’ibihingwa burinda ikirere kibi, udukoko,n’indwara. Iyo imbuto z’ubwoko bunyuranye zitabitswe, ubwoko bumwe buracika. Udafite ubwoko butandukanye bw’imbuto, igihe kizaza kiba kibi kuri ibyo bihingwa no ku muhinzi.
Mu gace k’iwanyu mwaba mukeneye ikigega?
Mu kwemeza ko gikenewe subiza ibi bibazo bibiri:
  1. Abahinzi bahinga imbuto zisanzwe n’izidakunda gukoreshwa mu gace?
  2. Abahinzi bajya bagurana bakanahana imbuto mu muryango no mu baturanyi?
Niba wasubije yego ku bibazo byose, ubwo abahinzi barinda ubwoko butandukanye bw’imbuto ubwo ntabwo ari ngombwa gutangiza ikigega cy’imbuto zihingwa. Iyo bagurana imbuto bigarargaza ko imbuto nziza ziboneka cyane. Iyo habayeho kugurana no gusangira imbuto, bigaragaza ko zigera ahantu henshi bityo zikaba zihari ku bwinshi. Rimwe na rimwe, abahinzi banga gusangira n’abandi imbuto, ntibanazibike, mu bice bimwe by’isi abantu banga gukorera hamwe. Ahandi ubukene bugatuma babirya byose. Aha bagomba gukora ikigega cy’imbuto kugira ngo batazabura izo guhinga ikindi gihe.

Uko ikigega gikorwa.

Guhuza abakozi, gukusanya imbuto
Abantu bamwe babika amafaranga yabomuri banki. Iyo bakeneye amafaranga arenzeho, bakora kuyo babitse. Ubu ni uburyo bw’uko banki zikora. Banki y’imbuto cyangwa ikigega, habikwamo imbuto ntabwo ari amafaranga. Izi mbuto zituruka ku bihingwa biboneka n’ibidakunda kuboneka cyane, ku bahinzi. Imbuto zibikwa mu kigega cy’imbuto cy’abaturage kugeza igihe zizakenerwa. Kishobora kuba uburyo butandukanye. Mu gace k’iwanyu gishobora kuba ari mu nyubako rusange cyangwa mu kigega. Zishobora kuba ziri mu mifuka  mu gikoni.
Ikigega cy’imbuto gifasha abaturage bishyize hamwe, atari umuntu ku giti cye. Iyo ibihingwa byangiritse bitewe n’isuri, udkoko cyangwa indwara, ukoresha imbuto uvanye mu kigega zishobora kubirwanya. Abahinzi bakenera kandi izo mbuto iyo bashaka iziba zaturutse ku gihingwa bashaka. Kandi nanone abahinzi bazikenera bashaka imbuto zabo bwite.

  1. kwishyira hamwe
  2. gukusanya imbuto
  3. gutunganya no kumisha imbuto
  4. kubika amakuru kubigendanye n’imbuto
  5. kubika imbuto.
  6. guhinga imbuto no kongera kubika izibonetse.
Menya ko iyi ari incamake yo gukora ikigega cy’imbuto. Ushobora kubona amakuru menshi ku bigega by’imbuto  mu bigo by’ubuhinzi n’iterambere.

Icya mbere: Kwishyira hamwe

Ikigega cy’imbuto gikenera abategura n’abakozi. Guhitamo abategura no gukora uwo mushinga. Ashobora kuba umuhinzi cyangwa undi muturage w;umunyamuryango, abakusanya ibiti, abakora imiti, abanyabukorikori n’abarobyi. N’abandi bashobora kubafasha ariko icyemezo gifatwa n’abaturage bose.
Icya mbere kandi cya ngombwa ni uko buri munyamuryango aba azi icyo bagamije.kandi yemera kuguma mo. Abanyamuryango bagomba gusinyira ibintu ngenderwaho. Nk’abahinzi bashobora kukubwira gutoranya imbuto, kuzitunganya, no guhunika bigomba gukorwa mu mwaka. Ikigega cy’imbuto gisaba gukora no kukitaho.
Iyo bashaka gukora cyane, ikindi gihe ni abakozi bahitamo imbuto zizafatwa. Wandika amazina. Hariho n’ibihingwa bifite akamaro byo mu gace kanyu. Wibuka ibihingwa bitajya biboneka nk’ibiti n’ibindi bihingwa bikoreshwa nk’imiti, ibiribwa n’ibiti bicanwa. Izi ni imbuto wakenera gukusanya



Icya kabiri: gukusanya imbuto

Abakora mu kigega cy’imbuto bagomba gukusanya imbuto bitonze. Bagomba kwegera abahinzi kugira ngo babe babaha imbuto zidasanzwe. Kwibuka ko abahinzi bagomba gufata imbuto zihagije zo gukoresha ku giti cyabo. Nta gufata imbuto z’abahinzi nta ruhushya. Kusanya imbuto abahinzi bashobora guhindura byibura mu gihe cy’umwaka. Nyumay’umwaka w’igerageza ushobora kumenya uko abakozi b’ikigega bazicunga.
Abahinzi bazamenya igihe cyiza mu mwaka cyo gukusanya imbuto.  Mu gukusanya imbuto, wibuke:
  • ubika imbuto ziturutse kubihingwa bisazwe bikoreshwa abantu batekereza ko arizo zifite akamaro n’ibindi bizwi ko byera muri ako gace. Abahinzi bakubwira imbuto zigomba gusimbuzwa ziturutse ku gihingwa iki n’iki.
  • iyo ubutaka butagitanga umusaruro kubera ko habayeho isuri, umuvu cyangwa itemwa ry’amashyamba.ugomba kubika imbuto ku bihingwa byo mu gasozi, akenshi ibi bihingwa bimeze nk’ibyo abahinzi babona ko bikunze gukoreshwa. Urugero: ibijumba bya kijyambere, n’inyanya bimeze kimwe byera ku gasozi. Iyo ubutaka bucyera, ntabwo ukenera gukusanya imbuto zo ku gasozi. Ariko ugomba kubirinda jamatungo kubirya n’isuri.
  • gukusanya imbuto zose zitandukanye wigira mu murima ugafata imbuto utomboza. Iyo ibhingwa bitandukanye ugendeye ku bwiza bw’imbuto, zihanganira umuvu, udukoko, ukenera gukusanya imbuto nyinhi. Buri gihe ugerageza gukusanya imboto nyinshi bishoboka.
  • kubika imbuto zose haba izavuye ku gihingwa kiza n’ikibi. Kusanya imbuto zavuye ku gihingwa kinini n’igitoya. Ubike n’imbuto z’igihingwa ubona kidasanzwe. Ibi bihingwa bishobora kuguha ibintu bifite akamaro udashobora guhita ubona nko kwihanganira ubutaka bubi, udukoko, izuba ryinshi n’ubukonje bwinshi. N’iyo igihingwa kirwaye ushobora kubika imbuto gusa iyo imbuto ari nzima. Ibihingwa byinshi byihanganira indwara cyangwa udukoko bigakomeza gutanga umusaruro uhagije. Ubika imbuto zavuye  ku bihingwa birwayi ahantu hatandukanye n’ah’izindi kugira ngo zitavaho zangiza izindi. Uzibika aho inzima zidashobora gukurira. Ntugahinge imbuto zirwaye hamwe n’inzima kuko zishobora kuzanduza.
  • bika imbuto zavuye ku bihingwa byatangiye guhingwa muri ako gace hashize mu myaka mikeya ishize. Ubika imbuto ziturutse kubihingwa bisazwe bikoreshwa abantu batekereza ko arizo zifite akamaro n’ibindi bizwi ko byera muri ako gace. Abahinzi bakubwira imbuto zigomba gusimbuzwa ziturutse ku gihingwa iki n’iki.
  • iyo ubutaka butagitanga umusaruro kubera ko habayeho isuri, umuvu cyangwa itemwa ry’amashyamba.ugomba kubika imbuto ku bihingwa byo mu gasozi, akenshi ibi bihingwa bimeze nk’ibyo abahinzi babona ko bikunze gukoreshwa. Urugero: ibijumba bya kijyambere, n’inyanya bimeze kimwe byera ku gasozi. Iyo ubutaka bucyera, ntabwo ukenera gukusanya imbuto zo ku gasozi. Ariko ugomba kubirinda jamatungo kubirya n’isuri.
  • gukusanya imbuto zose zitandukanye wigira mu murima ugafata imbuto utomboza. Iyo ibhingwa bitandukanye ugendeye ku bwiza bw’imbuto, zihanganira umuvu, udukoko, ukenera gukusanya imbuto nyinhi. Buri gihe ugerageza gukusanya imboto nyinshi bishoboka.
  • kubika imbuto zose haba izavuye ku gihingwa kiza n’ikibi. Kusanya imbuto zavuye ku gihingwa kinini n’igitoya. Ubike n’imbuto z’igihingwa ubona kidasanzwe. Ibi bihingwa bishobora kuguha ibintu bifite akamaro udashobora guhita ubona nko kwihanganira ubutaka bubi, udukoko, izuba ryinshi n’ubukonje bwinshi. N’iyo igihingwa kirwaye ushobora kubika imbuto gusa iyo imbuto ari nzima. Ibihingwa byinshi byihanganira indwara cyangwa udukoko bigakomeza gutanga umusaruro uhagije. Ubika imbuto zavuye  ku bihingwa birwayi ahantu hatandukanye n’ah’izindi kugira ngo zitavaho zangiza izindi. Uzibika aho inzima zidashobora gukurira. Ntugahinge imbuto zirwaye hamwe n’inzima kuko zishobora kuzanduza.
  • bika imbuto zavuye ku bihingwa byatangiye guhingwa muri ako gace hashize mu myaka mikeya ishize. Ibihingwa bimwe birahinduka, bikamenyera, bikaba byatanga n’umusaruro mu buryo bushyashya  mu gihe gito cy’ihinga
      


 

Icya gatatu: gutunganya no kumisha imbuto

Iyo imbutozakusanyijwe, zitoranywa neza kugira ngo zibikwe. Ubika gusa imbuto. Ukuramo imyanda ukoresheje igitebo, cyangwa ugakuramo imbuto ukoresheje intoki. Hari igihe abahinzi bazirekera mu bishishwa kugira ngo bazirinde udukoko.
Imbuto nyinshi zibanza kumishwa mere yo kuzihunika. Hari izibikwa ahantu hashyuha zitanikwa ako kanya ku izuba. Ugerageza niba zumye ukandisha intoki, iyo urubuto rumenetse, ruba rwumye neza. Iyo rurukandika ntirumeneke ruba rutaruma neza. Itondere kubika imbuto zumye cyane cyane mu gihe cy’imvura. Kuba rutumye mu muyaga ruhita rubora.
Imbuto zikomoka mu karere ko hagati, nka imyembe, imicunga, ntibyuma ariko bigumana ubukonje bwazo karemano. Uzihinga vuba vuba nyuma yo kuzibona. Uzibika mu kintu cya parasitiki kifungurwarimwe ku munsi kugira ngo zivange n’umwuka.
Nanone , ntabwo ugomba kumisha inyanya, n’ibindi bihingwa bitoshye. Ushyira imbuto zabyo mu  ndobo yuzuye amzi. Ntabwo ushyiramo imbuto nyishi kandi izipfuye zireremba hejuru y’amazi.  Zimaramo nk’imnsi itatu kugeza kuri itanu. Izipfuye zijya hejuru y’amaziukazikuraho. Imbuto nziza zijya ku ndiba. Wumisha imbuto nziza iminsi ibiri kugeza kuri itatu mbere yo kuzibika.
Ibikurikira tugiye kubona uko babika amakuru y’imbuto, uko zibikwa n’igihe uzivanira  mu kigega. Niba ushaka kumenya byinshi ku bijyanye n’ikigega cy’imbuto, reba agoronome.

Icya kane: kubika inyandiko ku bijyanye n’imbuto

Ikigega cy’imbuto cy’abaturage kirinda imbuto zo muri ako gace n’ubwoko bunyuranye bw’imbuto. Iki gice kitwereka uburyo wabika amakuru ku kigega cy’imbuto.
Amakuru ya ngombwa yo kwandika ni:
  • amazina y’igihingwa aho imbuto zavuye. Andika amazina yose akoreshwa kuri icyo gihingwa. N’amazina ya gihanga. Niba utazi izina rya gihanga baza abakozi.
  • amazina n’umwirondoro by’uwakusanyije imbuto n’itariki yazikusanyirijeho.
  • aho imbuto zavuye, shyiraho n’andi makuru uvuge intera iri hagati yahoo n’agace byegeranye kazwi mu buryo burambuye. Urugero ni ahantu hahanamye, ubutaka bwumutse neza, hari ibiti?
  • gusobanura neza igihingwa wazikuyeho. Urugero ni igihingwa kihanganira izuba, umuyaga, ubukonje, ushyiraho ibikiranga byose.
  • itariki imbuto zabikiwe. N’ighe imbuto zasaruriwemo. Urugero: ushobora kwandika ko imbuto zasaruwe mu kwa 7, 1994 mu gihe cy’ubushyuhe ikirere cyari gikeye, kandi hari udukoko twinshi.
Wandika aya makuru yose ku rupapuro, ushyire mufuka cyangwa ikigega kirimo izo mbuto. Wandika no ku rundi rupapuro kugira ngo ubune uko uzajya uzitanga bikoroheye. Ibi bitanga amateka ku bijyanye n’imbuto ziboneka n’aho zahingwa. Ugumana izo mpapuro igihe cyose. Wakenera gukora izindi mpapuro iyo iza mbere zatakaye.

Icya gatanu: Kubika imbuto

Abahinzi bose yaba abagore cyangwa abagabo bazi ibyiza byo kubika imbuto. Kuzitunganya no kuzumisha kugira ngo zimare igihe kirekire. Ukabaza abagabo n’abagore ukumva ibitekerezo byabo. Itonde igihe ubitse imbuto. Iyo zishyushye cyane, gukonja cyane cyangwa zagiyemo udukoko, nta bwo zitanga ibihingwa byiza. Imbuto zigomba kuba zisukuye, mu kintu cyumutse.
Mu gihe gishyushye cyane , zikenera ubukonje. Ushyiramo ivu . Ushobora gukoresha bimwe mu bintu byatuma hazamo ubukonje nk’isukari, amata n’ibindi ukabishyira hasi mucyo uzibitsemo ukaz guhindurira ahandi ariko ukajya uzanika nyuma y’iminsi ibiri ahantu hatagera izuba ako kanya.
Ububiko bwiza bw’imbuto ni umufuka w’umwenda. Imbuto zuzuzwamo ku buryo zigomba kubona umuyaga. Ugomba kwizera ko uwo mufuka udakonja kuburyo imbuto zabora cyangwa rimwe na rimwe udukoko tukajyamo. Ushira uwo mufuka mu kindi kintu nko mu gitebo.
Ubika mu cyumba kijimye, kirimo umwuka, cyumutse nko mu rutara. Ubushyuhe cyangwa ubukonje bwinshi byica imbuto. Niyo mpamvu ugomba kuzibika ahantu hari ubutaka bwiza kandi bwumutse. Iyo imbuto zumye gusa, zigomba kujya ahatagera izuba ako kanya. Nyuma yo kumisha zisubize muri icyo kintu. Mu gihe cy’imvura wanika imbuto buri munsi.


Icya 6: Guhinga no kongera kubika imbuto

Ikigega kigeraho kigaha imbuto abahinzi barumbije cyangwa ibyangijwe. Hano ikigega kirabikura. Guha abahinzi imbuto ntabwo aribwo buryo bwo kugabanya imbuto mu kigega gusa. Ushobora no kubikuza kubera ko imbuto zatangiye kumera. Upima imbuto kenshi uhitamo umubare w’imbuto z’igihingwa iki n’iki hamwe  no kureba uko zimera. Ntugakuremo gusa inziza koresha tombora. Ku bihingwa bifite ibintu 8 bitandukaniyeho, gerageza inshuro 100.
Kwemeza neza ko imbuto zikiri nzima, ukora igerageza ufata ikinyamakuru ugashyiramo urubuto ukaruzingamo. Ugashyira mu mufuka w’umwenda. Urubika ahantu hakonje mu minsi 6 kugeza 12, iyo urubuto ari ruzima ruramera. Umenye kandi ko zimwe mu mbuto zitinda kumera. Imbuto zitamera ziba zapfuye. Uzigaburira amatungo nk’inkoko.
Iyo imbuto zapfuye zirenze kimwe cya kabiri, ugomba guhita uzihinga. Ugukusanya izindi mbuto ziturutse kuri izo akaba arizo ubika. Iyo izirenze kimwe cya kabiri zimeze, umenya ko zikiri nzima. Ariko ntabwo ari ngombwa ko wongeramo izindi mbuto.
Wongeramo izindi imbuto mu kigega cy’imbuto, ukusanya ukabika imbuto nshyashya cyangwa ugahinga izambere, ukabika izi icyikiro cya kabiri.
Niba ushatse guhinga imbuto zawe za mbere, ugomba kwibuka:
  • ushaka ahantu hameze kimwe n’aho bazisaruye. Nubikoragutyo, uzabona imbuto zimeze kimwe nizo.
  • uhinga imbuto ahantu hatandukanye. Ibi byongera amahirwe yo kubona byibura ahantu heza zaturutse.
  • umwanya uri hagati y’ibihingwa ugomba kuba ungana n’uwari urimo mbere.ariko witondere guhinga kure y’ibindi bias  kuko bitabangurirana
Nyuma yo gutera imbuto, kusanya umubare munini w’imbuto harimo imbuto zituruka ku bihingwa binini cyangwa bitoya, birebire cyangwa bigufi, bifite imbuto zo kurya cyangwa bitazifite. Ugomba kubibika byumye, bifite akuka hatageramo udukoko.
Kumenya byinshi ku kigega cy’imbuto, cyangwa mu gukusanya, kumisha no kubika imbuto, baza abahinzi baguhe ibitekerezo byabo, cyangwa wegere ibiro by’ubuhinzi bikwegereye cyangwa abandi babishinzwe.
Kurinda ibihingwa bitajya biboneka n’ibikunda kuboneka. Wibuke ko ari iby’igihe kizaza ku buhinzi bwawe n’urugo rwawe.

Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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