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Ikibazo: Ese koko Yesu yabayeho? Haba hari bihamya byerekana ko Yesu yabayeho?

Igisubizo: Mu busanzwe iyo umuntu abajije iki kibazo, yongeraho ngo “utifashishije Bibiliya”. Ariko ntitwemera ko Bibiliya itafatwa nka gihamya yakwerekana ukubaho kwa Kristo. Isezerano Rishya ririmo ibihamya byinshi byerekana ko Yesu Kristo yabayeho. Hari benshi bemeza ko iryo Sezerano Rishya ryatangiye kwandikwa mu kinyejana cya kabiri nyuma ya Kristo, aharenga imyaka 100 nyuma y’ukubaho kwa Yesu. Tuvuze ko aribyo (nubwo tubihakana twivuye inyuma), burya mu buryo bw’amateka, inyandiko zanditswe mu myaka 200 yakurikiye kubaho kw’icyo zandikaho akenshi zikunzwe kubahwa. Ikindi, abanyamateka benshi (baba Abakristo cyangwa ntibabe bo) bemera ko inzandiko za Pawulo (nibura zimwe muri zo) zanditswe na Pawulo ubwe mu kinyejana cya mbere nyuma ka Kristo, imyaka 40 gusa nyuma yo gutanga kwa Yesu. Urebeye mu zindi nzandiko z’amateka, uhasanga ibindi bihamya bitangaje, aho inyinshi zikunze kugaruka ku mugabo witwaga Yesu muri Isirayeli yo mu kinyejana cya mbere.

Ni ngombwa kandi kwibuka ko mu mwaka wa 70 nyuma y’ivuka rya Kristo, Abaroma bateye Yerusalemu, barayisenya ntihasigara ibuye rigeretse ku rindi, bica abaturage bayo bose. Indi migi myinshi nayo yaratwitswe irakongoka. Ntabwo rero twatangara ko byinshi muri bihamya twagategereje byaba byarasenywe cyangwa byarangijwe. Abahamya benshi biboneye Yesu n’amaso yabo bari bakiriho icyo gihe barishwe. Ibi byatumye harokoka mbarwa biboneye ibya Yesu.

Ukurikije ko Yesu yabaga mu gace gatoya kadafite agaciro kenshi mu bwami bw’Abaroma, watangarira ubwinshi bw’amakuru y’icyo gihe avuga kuri Yesu. Bimwe muri bihamya by’amateka byerekana ko Yesu yabayeho ni ibikurikira:

Umugabo Tacitus, umuroma wo mu kinyejana cya mbere, wizerwa cyane nk’umwe mu banyamateka bakomeye bo mu myaka ya kera cyane, avuga ngo ku bantu biyitaga “abakristo” (bituruka kuri christus mu kilatini - soma kristusi) bababajwe cyane ku butegetsi ya Ponsiyo Pilato mu gihe cy’ingoma ya Tiberiyusi. Uwitwaga Suetonius (soma Suwetoniyusi), wari umunyamabanga wa mbere w’umwami Hadrian (soma Hadiriyani) mu nyandiko ze yagarutse ku mugabo bitaga Chrestus (ubundi buryo bwo kuvuga Christus mu kilatini) cyangwa Kristo wabayeho mu kinyejana cya mbere (inzandiko ze zitwa Annals, mu gice cya 15, umurongo wa 44).

Flavius Josephus (soma Falaviyusi Yozefusi) niwe munyamateka uzwi cyane w’umunya-Isirayeli. Mu nzandiko ze yise Antiquities (tugenekereje, Ibyahise cyangwa Ibya kera cyane) avuga uwitwa Yakobo “umuvandimwe wa Yesu, benshi bitaga Kristo”. Hari aho agera akavuga ko (18:3) “icyo gihe hariho uwitwaga Yesu, umugabo w’Imfura, niba yakwitwa umuntu nkatwe. Uwo yari umugabo wakoze ibitarigeze bibonwa … Yari Kristo (Mesiya) … Yabiyeretse ku munsi wa gatatu, nkuko abahanuzi bari barabihanuye, kimwe n’ibindi byinshi kuri we.” Ahandi yongera kumugarukaho, agira ati “icyo gihe hariho Yesu, umugabo w’Imfura. Yari inyangamugayo kandi bose bari bazi gukiranuka kwe. Abayahudi benshi ndetse n’andi moko yaramuyobotse. Ariko Pilato yaje kumucira urwo kubambwa ngo apfe. Ariko abari barabaye abigishwa be ntibigeze babireka. Bakomeje kwemeza ko yabiyeretse iminsi itatu nyuma y’iryo bambwa rye, akaba yarazutse ari muzima; ibyo bibaye ari ukuri yaba ari Mesiya, nkuko abahanuzi bari barabiteguje.”

Uwitwa Yulius Afrikanusi (Julius Africanus) avuga ku nyandiko z’umunyamateka witwa Talusi (Thallus), wavuze ku mwijima wakurikiye ukubambwa kwa Yesu (Extant Writings, 18).

Pilini Muto (Pliny the Younger) yavuze (Letters 10:96) ku migenzereze y’ubukristo bwari bucyaduka, avuga ko abakristo basenganga Yesu nk’Imana kandi ko bari inyangamugayo cyane, agenda atangarira igaburo ryera no gusangirira hamwe bajyaga bagira.

Ibyandikiwe i Babiloni (Babylonian Talmud, 43a) bihamya ibambwa rya Yesu, bikavuga ko byabaye ku mugoroba ubanziriza wa Pasika; binavuga kuri bimwe mu byacishije Yesu umutwe, harimo gushinjwa “gukora ubufindo” (magie) ari nako ayobya Abisirayeli.

Lusiyani wa Samosata (Lucian of Samosata) umugereki wo mu kinyejana cya kabiri, we mu nyandiko ze avuga ukuntu abakristo basengaga Yesu, uwari waradukanye inyigisho nshya, nyuma akaza no kubizira abambwa ku musaraba. Lusiyani uwo yasobanuye ko zimwe mu izo nyigisho za Yesu harimo ubusabane bwa kivandimwe, uburemere bwo kwihana kimwe no kuva ku zindi Mana. Abakristo ngo babagaho bakurikiza amategeko ya Yesu, bakeka ko batazapfa, kandi bakaba bari bazwi nk’abasuzuguraga urupfu, kwitanga gukabije, no kutita ku by’isi.

Mara Bara-Serapiyoni (Mara Bar-Serapion) we yemeza ko Yesu wari uzwi nk’umugabo w’imico myiza, benshi bitaga Umwami w’Abayuda, yaje kwicwa n’Abayuda ubwabo, ariko inyingisho ze zigakomeza gukurikizwa n’abigishwa yasize.

Hanyuma tukaza kugira inzandiko nyinshi zanditswe zitigeze zinjizwa muri Bibiliya (Ivanjili y’Ukuri, Ibindi Byahishuriwe Yohana, Ivanjili ya Toma, Isuzuma ry’Ukuzuka, n’izindi) zose zivuga kuri Yesu.

Ahubwo, dushatse twanandika ubutumwa bwiza bwose duhereye kubyo ababayeho icyo gihe bagiye bavuga, nubwo batari abakristo: Yesu bamwitaga Kristo (dukurikije Yozefusi), yakoraga “ubufindo”, yazanye inyigisho nshya muri Isirayeli kandi anabambwa ku mugoroba wa Pasika (Ibyandikiwe i Babiloni), abambirwa i Yudaya (Tasitusi), akaba yaremezaga ko ari Imana kandi ko azagaruka (Eliyazari), ibyo abigishwa be bakaba barabyizeraga, bamusenga nk’Imana (Pilini Muto).

Hari bihamya byinshi, byinshi cyane ku kubaho kwa Yesu Kristo, waba urebeye mu mateka y’isi cyangwa ya Bibiliya. Ariko wenda gihamya nkuru yatangwa nuko, tudakabije, ibihumbi by’abakristo mu kinyejana cya mbere (ubariyemo n’intumwa 12), batatinyaga kuba bapfira ukwemera kwabo muri Yesu Kristo. Abantu burya bapfira ibyo bazi neza ko ari kuri kandi banahagazeho, kuko burya ntawapfira icyo azi neza ko ari ikinyoma cyangwa atahagazeho nk’ukuri.

Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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