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Ikibazo: Ibitabo bigize Bibiliya byashyizwe hamwe ryari, gute?

Igisubizo: Iyi ngingo iragoye kubera ko Bibiliya ubwayo itatubwira urutonde rw’ibitabo bigomba kuba biyigize. Urutonde rwa mbere rwakozwe n’abanyamadini, abahanga b’abayuda, nyuma ruza kuzuzwa n’abari bayoboye itorero ryo mu myaka yakurikiye kuzuka kwa Kristo. Ariko ibyari byo byose, Imana niyo yatoranyijemo ibitabo bigomba kugira Bibiliya. Buri gitabo cyabaye igice cya Bibiliya Imana ikigihumeka. Nyuma yo kwandikwa, Imana yakurikijeho kuyobora abakozi bayo mu gutoranyamo ibitabo bijya muri Bibiliya.

Ugereranyije, Isezerano rya Kera ntabwo ryagiweho impaka nyinshi nk’izabaye mu gushyira hamwe Isezerano Rishya. Abaheburayo bamenyaga kandi bakubaha abatumwe n’Imana ndetse bakubaha inyandiko zabo. Nubwo hatabuze impaka nkeya ku birebana n’ibitabo biri mu Isezerano rya Kera, mu mwaka wa 250 nyuma ya Kristo nta mpaka zari zikiriho ku Isezerano rya Kera. Icyari kikigibwaho impaka gusa ni ibitabo byongerwagaho n’abizera bandi (Apocrypha), kandi izo mpaka na nubu ziracyahari. Abahanga mu idini ry’Abaheburayo bafataga ibyo bitabo by’inyongera nk’ibirebana n’amateka cyangwa idini, ariko bikaba bidafite uburemere nk’ubw’ibindi bitabo by’Isezerano rya Kera.

Kwemeranya no gushyira hamwe ibitabo byo mu Isezerano Rishya byatangiye mu binyejana bya mbere nyuma ya Kristo. Mu ikubitiro, hari ibitabo bimwe bitagibwagaho impaka ko bigomba gushyirwamo. Intumwa Pawulo yahaga inzandiko za Luka agaciro gafite uburemere nk’ubw’ibitabo byo mu Isezerano rya Kera (1 Timoteyo 5:18; reba Gutegeka kwa Kabiri 25:4 na Luka 10:7). Intumwa Petero yabonaga inzandiko za Pawulo nk’ibyanditswe byera (2 Petero 3:15-16). Ahubwo bimwe mu bitabo dusanga mu Isezerano Rishya byari byaratangiye gusomwa mu matorero amwe n’amwe (Abanyekolosi 4:16; 1 Abatesalonika 5:27). Kilimenti w’i Roma (Clement of Rome – uwo niwe watoranyijwemo n’Intumwa Petero, mbere yo kwicwa, ngo akomeze kuyobora umurimo) yemeraga nibura ibitabo 8 byo mu Isezerano Rishya (umwaka wa 95). Inyasiyusi wa Antiyokiya (Ignatius of Antioch – uwo yari umufasha wa hafi w’Intumwa Yohana, yaje kuba umukuru w’Itorero rya Antiyokiya, mbere yo kwicwa agaburiwe inyamaswa z’inkazi) we yemeraga nibura ibitabo 7 (umwaka wa 115). Polikaripu (Polycarp), undi mwigishwa w’Intumwa Yohana, yemeraga ibitabo 15 (umwaka wa 108). Nyuma yaho, Irenewusi (Irenaeus), wigiye ku birenge bya Polikaripu, we yasomaga ibitabo 21 (umwaka wa 185). Hipolitusi (Hippolytus), wigiye ku birenge bya Irenewusi, yemeraga ibitabo 21 (umwaka wa 170-235). Bimwe mu bitabo byari bigiteje impaka nyinshi ni Abaheburayo, Yakobo, 2 Petero, 2 Yohana na 3 Yohana.

Itsinda ry’ibitabo, cyangwa Kanoni (Canon) byemeranyijweho ryitwa irya Muratoriyani (Muratorian – ryitiriwe uwarivumbuye muri 1740, Padiri w’umutaliyani Muratori), ryashyizwe hamwe mu mwaka wa 170. Uwo muzingo warimo ibitabo byose byo mu Isezerano Rishya uretse Abaheburayo, Yakobo na 3 Yohana. Mu mwaka wa 363, inama yabereye i Lawodesiya (Laodecia) yemeje ko amatorero yose agomba gusoma Isezerano rya Kera ryose, n’ibitabo 27 byo mu Isezerano Rishya gusa. Ibyo byaje kwemezwa n’inama y’i Hippo (umwaka wa 393) hamwe n’inama ya Karitaji (Carthage – umwaka wa 397), byashimangiye uwo mubare w’ibitabo 27 nk’ijambo ry’Imana.

Izo nama zagiye zifata iyo myanzuro zikurikije amahame akurikira, mu kugena ibitabo bifatwa nkaho byahumetswe na Mwuka Wera: 1) Ese umwanditsi ni Intumwa, cyangwa yari umwigishwa w’Intumwa? 2) Ese icyo gitabo cyemerwa n’umubiri wa Kristo nta shiti? 3) Ese icyo gitabo cyuzuza cyangwa gikomeza ibindi byanditswe? 4) Ese icyo gitabo kirimo gihamya zerakana gukiranuka n’ubunyamwuka bwagaragaraza igikorwa cya Mwuka Wera?

Ni ngombwa kongera kwibutsa ko Itorero ritahisemo ibitabo bigomba kugira Isezerano Rishya. Ni Imana, Imana yonyine, yemeje ibitabo bigomba gushyirwa muri Bibiliya. Icyari gisigaye gusa ni uburyo Imana yagiye iyobora abayo mu kumenya ibyo yarangije gutegeka. Iyo abantu baba aribo batoranyijemo ibyo bitabo hari kubamo kwibeshya, ariko Imana mu budahangarwa kwayo, irenga ukutamenya ndetse no kwinangira kwa muntu, maze iyobora itorero ryo mu minsi y’ikubitiro mu gutoranyamo ibitabo yahumetse.

Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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