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UBUHINZI BW’ AVOKA


 UBUHINZI BW’ AVOKA 1.UMURYANGO W’IMBUTO Y’AVOKA.
Avoka Ibarirwa mu muryango wa lauracees, mu bwoko bwa persea Americana, yakomotse muri Amerika yo hagati. Avoka ni imbuto ziribwa zikungahaye cyane ku muvuta na vitamini. Avoka ni igiti gikura kikagera ku burebure bwa metero 8 kugera kuri 20. Amoko yatsindiriwe akunze kuba magufi kuruta amahumbikano.
2. Akamaro k’Avoka
Avoka zikungahaye ku mavuta kurusha izindi mbuto ziribwa ari mbisi (7.8-40.7) bityo zitanga imbaraga , zikungahaye kuri vitamini C,A,B,E,K. Inombe y’Avoka ikorwamo amavuta yo guteka, umutobe wo kunywa. Avoka kandi zikoreshwa mu nganda zikora imiti, amavuta yo kwisiga n’amasabune, ibishishwa n’ibisigazwa byazo bikorwamo ibyo kurya by’amatungo.
3. Aho Avoka Ikunda
Avoka ikunda ahantu hagwa imvura iringaniye (1250-1750mm) mu mwaka,ubutaka butarekamo amazi menshi kuko atuma imizi ibora bityo igiti kikuma. Avoka yera hose mu Rwanda ku butumburuke buri hagati ya metero 900 na metero 1800, ahantu hari ubusharire bwa PH5.5-6 ariko hari n’amoko yera neza hejuru ya metero 2000.
4. Amoko y’Avoka
Amoko y’Avoka y’ingenzi yakozweho ubushakashatsi akagaragaza ko yera neza ni Hass, fuerte, Ettinger, Booth8, Choquette na collisson. Hariho andi yera mu rugero kandi akera hejuru ya metero 2000. Ayo ni nka Zutano, puelba, Dickison, simpson, Bacon, Booth7. Avoka zera imbuto zifite ishusho itandukanye bitewe n’ubwoko bwazo. Hari izigira imbuto zibumbabumbye,izindi ni ndende kimwe nuko hari ingufi. Iyo Avoka ihishije, igishishwa gishobora gusa n’icyatsi cyangwa umutuku bitewe n’ubwoko bwayo.
5. Gutegura Ingemwe/ingeli:
Umuhinzi Ashobora guhita atera ikibuto cy’avoka mu murima cyangwa mu buhumbukiro, cyangwa agatsindira (guhindura) atera igiti mu kindi.
Ingeri umuhinzi atera mu rugemwe ni agace k’ishami cyangwa k’umutwe w’ishami ry’avoka isanzwe yera. Iyo ngeri igomba kuba ifite amaso make. Iba ireshya na cm 6-8 naho umutwe w’urugemwe ugomba kuba ufite agatutu kanini kabyibushye.
5.1. Guhumbika
Guhumbika bikorerwa mu butaka bwiza butavuye mu gishanga. Bubaka ubuhumbikiro bakabusakara, bagatera ibibuto mu mirongo byegeranye, imitwe ikarenga ubutaka buhoro, bigabitwikirizwa utwatsi duke hanyuma bikabivomererwa buri munsi. Iyo ibibuto bizanye umumero bigemurirwa mu bihoho bya plastiki bipfumaguye byuzuye itaka rivanze n’ifumbire. Icyo gihe umumero uba ureshya na cm 1-2 kandi uba ugifashe ku bibuto. Ni ngombwa gutemera imizi yo hagati kuri cm 5 kugirango izamereho indi mizi myinshi, nyuma yo kugemura mu bihoho bishyirwa muri pepiniyeri itwikiriye,ingemwe zikitabwaho, zikabangurirwa hanyuma zikazaterwa mu murima zifite cm15-20.
Mu gutera ingemwe z’avoka mu murima ni ngombwa gushwanyuza igihoho hagasigara igitaka gikikije imizi kugirango zizafate neza. Mu byumweru bya mbere ingemwe zigiterwa ziratwikirwa, zikavomererwa rimwe cyangwa kabiri ku munsi iyo nta mvura igwa.
5.2 Guherako utera Ibibuto:
Mu gutera ibibuto mu murima, umuhinzi acukura imyobo ya metero 1 buri ruhande na metero 1 z’ubujyakuzimu akuzuzamo igitaka kiza kivanze n’ifumbire:
Umuhinzi abanza itaka mu mwobo kugeza kuri cm 30 - agakurikizaho ifumbire kugeza kuri cm 60 akongera agashyiraho itaka ryo hejuru bityo kugeza umwobo wuzuye.
Cyakora biba byiza iyo ifumbire ivanzwe n’itaka mbere yo - gusubiza itaka mu mwobo
Ibibuto biterwa iyo imvura imaze gutsindagira cya gitaka. - Haterwa ibibuto 2-3 agasiga cm 15-20 hagati y’ikibuto n’ikindi. Ibibuto ntibitabwa cyane kandi bitwikirizwa utwatsi duke, bikubakirwa kugirango bibone igicucu.
Ibibuto bitewe kuri ubu buryo bimera mu minsi hafi 30. Iyo bimaze kumera ni ngombwa guhitamo urugemwe rumwe rwiza izindi zikarandurwa.
Icyiza cy’ubu buryo ni uko butarushya kandi bugatanga igiti kiza gikomeye kikagumana umuzi wacyo wo hagati ucengera cyane mu butaka.
5.3 Gutsindira/Kubangurira (Gutera igiti mu kindi):
Iyo ingemwe zagemuriwe mu bihoho zimaze amezi ari hagati y’atatu n’ane ni ukuvuga urugemwe rufite umubyimba ungana n’ikaramu rureshya na cm 20-30, atera ingeri hagati y’amaso ari muri cm10-15 uturutse kubutaka. Twibutse ko ibihoho bigemurirwamo ingemwe z’avoka biba bifite cm 40 z’uburebure na cm 20 z’ubugari. Muri ubu buryo bwo gutsindira, ingeri iterwa mu ruhande rw’urugemwe rufite umubyimba munini. Ingeri ikoreshwa ni umutwe cyangwa ishami by’igiti cy’avoka cy’ubwoko buzwi neza ko butanga umusaruro mwiza kandi buryoha. Iyo ngeri iba ifite amaso make ifite uburebure buri hagati ya cm 6-8. Uwo mutwe cyangwa iryo shami bigomba kuba kandi bifite agatutu kanini kabyibushye. Iyo ingeri izakoreshwa imaze gusarurwa, ni ngombwa guhita ivanwaho amababi, agatemerwa aho ingabo y’ikibabi itangirira; ni ukuvuga ko hasigara inkondo yonyine. Iyo ingeri imaze guterwa mu rugemwe kuri ubu buryo, aho iterewe hahita hahambirwa bakoresheje pulasitike ku buryo nta mazi cyangwa ikindi kintu cyakwinjiramo.
Nyuma y’ukwezi ingeri itewe mu rugemwe itaruma n’inkondo - z’amababi ngo zihunguke, umutwe wa rwa rugemwe urakatwa.
Iyo ingeri yumye barongera bagateramo indi ariko mu - ruhande ruteganye n’urwo iya mbere yari iteyemo ukurikije uko urugemwe rwakoreshejwe rukomeye.
Ni ngombwa kwirinda ko umugozi wakoreshejwe mu - guhambira ucengera mu gishishwa kuko gishobora kubyimba cyane. Iyo bibaye uhambura umugozi ugahambiriza undi.
Nyuma y’ibyumweru 2-3 ingeri ishibutse, kuraho amaso - yose aza ku rugemwe kandi wibuke guhambura umugozi urugemwe rumaze kuzana amababi n’igishishwa cy’aho ingeri yaterewe kimaze gufatana neza.
Nyuma y’amezi abiri ingeri ishibutse, iyo imaze gufata neza - ni ngombwa kwibuka guhungura amababi uturutse hepfo ukagenda usigaho abiri kugirango amazi y’igiti akomeze atemberemo neza.
Ingemwe ziterwa mu murima zireshya na cm30-50, zigatwikirwa mu byumweru bya mbere. Ni ngombwa kuvomerera ingemwe zigiterwa nibura 1-2 ku munsi iyo nta mvura.
5.4 Gutera Ingeri mu rugemwe:
Mbere yo gutera ingeri mu rugemwe cyangwa kubangurira ni ngombwa kubanza gutegura ingeri izakoreshwa ndetse n’urugemwe rubangurirwa.
Ubu buryo bukoreshwa iyo hari ubwoko bwifuzwa bushaka gutezwa imbere kurusha ubundi. Ubwoko bushaka gutezwa imbere ni bwo bubangurira ni ukuvuga ko aribwo bukurwaho ingeri (igitsindiro).Naho ubwoko bubangurirwa ni bwo buba bwarahumbitswe buri mu gihoho (murezi).
Gutsindira/kubangurira bikorwa ku buryo bukurikira :
Gutoranya muri pepiniyeri ingemwe nziza kuri buri rugemwe • ni ukuvuga zitarangwaho uburwayi kandi zakuze neza (rufite nibura umubyimba ungana n’uw’ikaramu y’igiti)
Gushaka ishami ryo ku mutwe ry’ubwoko wifuza gutsindira • (igitsindiro) rifite umubyimba ungana n’uw’urugemwe ushaka kuribanguriraho.
Kubaza igice cyo hasi cy’ishami ushaka gutsindira , ukaribaza • ku mpande zombi zibangikanye ku gice kireshya nibura na cm 1-2 . iryo shami ugomba kuribaza uhereye aho warikatiye kandi bigakorwa ku mpande zombi zibangikanye. Amababi yose avanwaho ku mutwe ugiye gukoreshwa mu kubangurira hagasigara gusa inkondo zayo.
Urugemwe ruri mu gihoho rukatwa umutwe ku buryo • umubyimba w’ahakaswe uba ujya kungana n’uw’ingeri ikoreshwa mu kubangurira
Gusatura mo kabiri mu buhagarike urugemwe (murezi) ku • burebure bureshya na cm 1-2 uvuye aho wagiciriyemo
Gufata ingeri y’ubwoko wifuza (igitsindiro) ukayicomeka aho • wasatuye mu rugemwe rw’avoka (murezi) ku buryo imitima yazo zombi ihura.
Guhambiriza akagozi k’isashi ya pulasitiki hahandi wacomekeye • kugeza munsi y’aho gato. pulasitike ikoreshwa iba ifite mm 5 z’ubugari na mm 0.1 z’umubyimba
Gutwikira igitsindiro n’isashi nziza kugeza munsi y’aho • wahambiririye ibyo bice byombi
Gutobagura isashi wapfundikije ukoresheje urushinge • cyangwa ikindi cyuma gisongoye gifite isuku kugirango umwuka utinjiramo
Gusura kenshi kugirango umenye niba igitsindiro ari kizima • kandi kigenda gifata. Ibi ubibwirwa no kubona icyunzwe mu isashi wapfundikije
Iyo ya ngeri (igitsindiro) imaze kumera yazanye n’udushami, • isashi yakoreshejwe mu gutwikira ivanwaho
Kuvanaho ya sashi ubundi ukajya ukuraho ibisambo • (imishibuka) biza kuri rwa rugemwe rwo hasi rwahoze mu gihoho
5.5 Gutera ingeri mu rugemwe rw’ikibuto bahereyeko batera mu murima:
Umuhinzi atera ingeri mu rugemwe rwameze ku kibuto bateye mu murima cg mu rugemwe bagemuriye mu murima rutabanguriye nk’uko abigenza ku ngemwe zavuye ku bibuto bahumbitse zikagemurirwa muri pepiniyeri. Ni ngombwa gutwikira buri rugemwe kugirango ruticwa n’izuba kugeza ingeri imaze kuzana amababi 2-3.
6. Gutera Ingerimu bitibikuru (Kubangurira ibiti bikuru)
Ibi bikorwa imvura igitangira kugwa. Icyo gihe umuhinzi atemera igiti muri cm 50-60 aturutse ku butaka akagitwikira. Ibi bituma igishishwa kitomoka kandi igiti cyatemwe kigashibukaho ibiti byinshi. Nyuma igiti gikurwaho amaso ku buryo hasigara amaso 4-6 ariyo atanga ibishibu. Ibyo bishibu nibyo biba amashami y’ingenzi y’igiti.
Ayo mashami niyo umuhinzi abangurira (ateramo ingeri). Iyo ishami rimaze kubangurirwa riratwikirwa kugeza igihe ya ngeri imereyeho amababi 2-3.
7. Gutera ingemwe mu murima:
Ni ngombwa kubanza gupima ahazaterwa ibiti by’avoka, hagashingwa imambo. Iyo ibyo birangiye imirimo ikurikirana ku buryo bukurikira:
Gucukura imyobo ya cm 60-100 mu mpande na cm 60-100  ibujyakuzimu,
Gushyira ifumbire n’itaka mu mwobo ku buryo bukurikira:  habanza ifumbire mu mwobo kugeza kuri cm 30 z’ubuhagarike, hagakurikiraho itaka izindi cm 30 z’ubuhagarike, hakongerwamo ifumbire kuri cm 20 z’ubuhagarike, hagasoza itaka ryiza kuri cm zisigaye 20.
Ushobora no kuvanga itaka n’ifumbire mbere yo kuryuzuza  muri wa mwobo uzaterwamo avoka.
Ku ngemwe zibanguriye intera hagati y’igiti n’ikindi iba  metero 7 - 7.5 hagati y’igiti n’ikindi no hagati y’imirongo ku biti bitagagara cyane ni ukuvuga ibiti 177-204 kuri hegitari.Iyo ntera iba metero 10 hagati y’igiti n’ikindi no hagati y’imirongo ku biti bigagara cyane ni ukuvuga ibiti 100 kuri ha
Mu buhinzi bwa kijyambere bw’avoka ibipimo bikurikizwa ni metero 7.5 hagati y’ibiti no hagati y’imirongo. Nko ku bwoko bwa Fuerte utera buri gihe kuri m 7.5 hagati y’ingemwe no hagati y’imirongo (ibiti 177 kuri hegitari)
Ku bwoko bwa Hass bukunze guterwa kuri m 7 hagati y’igiti n’iki no hgati no hagati y’imirongo (ibiti 204 kuri ha).
Avoka ziterwa mu ntangiriro y’imvura muri Werurwe na Nzeri. Ingemwe zibanguriye ziterwa zimaze igihe cyiri hagati y’amezi 7 na 10 muri pepiniyeri. Icyo gihe ziba zimaze gufata neza. Iyo avoka zimaze guterwa ni ngombwa kuzifata neza, uzibagarira, biba byiza iyo zihinzwemo ibihingwa bitwikira ubutaka nka desmodium. Ni ngombwa kuvomerera avoka nibura kabiri mu cyumweru igihe ibiti bikiri bito.
Mu gutera ni ngombwa gushwanyuza igihoho hagasigara igitaka gikikije imizi kugirango ingemwe zizafate neza. Mu byumweru bya mbere ingemwe ziratwikirwa zikavomererwa rimwe cyangwa kabiri ku munsi iyo nta mvura.
8. Gukata Avoka
8.1. Ikata ryo gutereka igiti
Iyo igice cyo hejuru ni ukuvuga ingeri yakoreshejwe mu kubangurira imaze gukura ku buryo ireshya na cm 40 umuhinzi ayica umutwe. Icyo gihe ya ngeri ishibuka amashami 3-5 yageza kuri cm 40 nayo agacibwa imitwe kugirango ashibuke andi mato nayo yamara kureshya na cm 40 akongera agacibwa imitwe.
Ibyo birakomeza kugeza avoka imaze kureshya na metero 2 aho amashami agenda ashibuka ubwayo.
8.2. Ikata ryo gufata neza igiti
Mu rwego rwo gufata neza igiti cy’avoka kibanguriye umuhinzi akuraho ibisambo, amashami agoramye n’ayumye.
8.3. Amoko atezwa imbere
Amoko y‘Avoka atezwa imbere n‘Ikigo RHODA akaba ari nayo acuruzwa cyane ku masoko mpuzamahanga ni Hass na Fuerte. Muri yo Hass nibwo bwoko bukunzwe cyane kubera uburyohe n‘amavuta bufite.
9. Ifumbire
Mu gihe cyo gutera umuhinzi ashyira mu mwobo ibiro 50 by’ifumbire y’imborera ivanze na garama 200 za superphosphate. Nyuma buri mwaka batera garama 400-500 za NPK 20-10-10.
10. Umurumbiko
Avoka yabanguriwe itangira kwera nyuma y’imyaka 3-4; Avoka y’impumbikano ni ukuvuga itabanguriye itangira kwera nyuma y’imyaka 6-8.
Umusaruro ntuba kimwe buri gihe bitewe n’ubwoko bw’Avoka n’akarere. Igiti gikuru gishobora kwera imbuto 100-500 cg ibiro 200-300 bingana na toni 15-20 ku mwaka. Ubunini bw’imbuto y’Avoka buterwa n’ubwoko bwayo: ubwoko bwa Mexican bwera urubuto ruto rwa garama 227 cyangwa se hasi naho ubwoko bwa Guatemala bushobora kwera imbuto zipima 1.4-2kg

11. Indwara n’ibyonnyi:

1. Kwuma kw’igiti: Igiti gisa n’icyumye kuko nta kigishibukaho. iterwa n’agahumyo (phyotophtora cinnamoni), gatuma imizi ibora. Kuyirwanya: gutera ahantu hatari amazi menshi, gukoresha imiti yica uduhumyo nka Oxychlorure de cuivre 20g/10l z’amazi kuri ari
2. Scab/amabara y’ikigina aza ku mbuto, igishishwa k’imbuto kirasatagurika aho gisatuye hakabora, ifata cyane ubwoko bufite igishishwa gito cyoroshye , iyi ndwara ntikanganye cyane
3. Udusimba (a) Borer de Rameaux agasimba gafite igihu gikomeye gacukura imyobo mu masami akuma. Kukarwanya ni ukugenzura buri gihe amashami yafashwe, gutera umuti uvanga Parathion na aldrine.
4. Utundi dusimba turya amashami akiri mato n’imbuto dusiga utudomo tw’ikigina hakavamo ibizi byeruruka. Kuturwanya : Kwirinda igisambu hafi y’umurima w’avoka, gutera umuti wa sumithion cyangwa parathion ivanze n’amazi.
Source:
Website : www.rhoda.gov.rw

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