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UBUHINZI BW‘ IBINYOMORO


 UBUHINZI BW‘ IBINYOMORO IBINYOMORO
Ikinyomoro(Itomati y’igiti) ni igiti cy’umubyimba muto kigira imizi itari miremire, n’uburebure bushobora kugera kuri metero 6. kibaho igihe kitari kirekire, ku buryo mu busanzwe gishobora kugeza ku myaka iri hagati ya 15 na 20. Ibibabi byacyo bikoze nk’umutima kandi bigira uburebure bushobora kureshya na cm 30 n’ubugali bwa cm12.
Indabo zacyo zigira ibara rijya kuba rose (pink) , ubururu cyangwa umweru kandi zikamerera aho amashami atangiriye. Imbuto zera ku giti cy’ikinyomoro ziba umutuku, umuhondo, orange cyangwa se purupule (purple). Zigira akarizo karekare kandi kananutse rukagira uburebure bushobora kugera kuri cm 10 n’ubugari bwa cm 5 kandi ziteye nk’igi risongoye ku mutwe.
Umurama wazo ni muto cyane, urabwase kandi ukaba ukomeye.
Ibinyomoro byera neza mu butaka burimo ifumbire, bufi te ubutote buhagije kandi buhitisha amazi n’umwuka. Ntibyihanganira ahantu hareka amazi cyangwa humaganye.
Ntigikura cyane ngo kigagare ariko kandi kikaba gishobora kugira amashami atuma gikwira ahantu hanini kandi akunze gushibukira ku mutwe.
Ibinyomoro bibamo amoko atandukanye bitewe n’ibara ry’igishishwa cy’urubuto. Bityo hariho ubwoko bugira igishishwa gitukura, cy’umuhondo, cya orange gisa na zahabu n’andi n’andi. Amoko y’ibinyomoro ashobora kandi gutandukana bitewe n’ingano y’urubuto kimwe n’uburyo urubuto rukoze.
Inkomoko y’ibinyomoro
Ikinyomoro ni igihingwa gikomoka muri Andes cyane cyane mu bihugu bya Peru, Chili, Equateur na Boliviya muri Amerika y’amajyepfo. Bihingwa cyane mu bihugu bya Australiya, Brezili, Colombiya, Indonesiya, Kenya, Portugali na leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika na Venezwela. Ibihugu bicuruza cyane umusaruro w’ibinyomoro ku masoko mpuzamahanga ni Nouvelle zellande na Portugali.
Imbuto z’ibinyomoro:
Imbuto z’ibinyomoro zigira uburebure buri hagati ya cm 2 na cm 10. Izi mbuto zitangira kwera nyuma y’imyaka ibiri. Igiti kimwe cy’ikinyomoro gishobora kwera imbuto zingana n’ibiro 22 kugeza kuri 66 ku mwaka bitewe n’uburyo cyitaweho.
Imizi y’ibinyomoro Ibinyomoro bigira imizi migufi ikaba yishimira isaso ndetse no kuvomererwa igihe imvura ari nke.
Uruti cyangwa igihimba
Igihimba cy’ikinyomoro kirakura kikaba cyageza ku burebure bwa metero 6. Cyakora ibi bituma kitihanganira imiyaga myinshi bityo kikaba cyavunika.
Amoko y’ibinyomoro
Uko uteye umurama w’ikinyomoro siko ingemwe zizamuka zisa na nyina. Hariho amoko menshi atandukanywa cyane n’ibara ry’urubuto rweze n’ingano y’igiti. Nko mu gihugu cyacu hakunze kuboneka amoko atatu atandukanywa n’ubunini n’ibara ry’urubuto. Hari amoko yera ibinyomoro binini n’ayera ibinyomoro bito akunze kuba umuhondo cyangwa umutuku.
Muri Florida naho haboneka amoko abiri ariyo Inca Gold na Ecuadorian orange. Muri Brezil
ubushakashatsi bwashoboye gukora amoko aberanye naho.
Aho ikinyomoro cyera
Iki giti gikunda ahantu hari ubutumburuke buri hagati ya metero 300 na metero 3000. Hari aho ugisanga ku butumburuke bwo hasi cyane, ariko icyo gihe gitanga imbuto ntoya.
Ikinyomoro gikunda na none ahantu hari ubutaka bufashe ariko buhitisha neza amazi n’umwuka. Imizi yacyo ntiyihanganira ahantu amazi areka mu butaka kuko ibura umwukabityo igiti kigahita cyuma. Ni ngombwa kandi ko igihe wateye iki giti wihatira kukirinda imiyaga kuko ihita igitura hasi.
Amashami yacyo nayo iyo atangiye kwera imbuto uyarinda umuyaga. Iki giti gitangira kwera imbuto mu gihe cy’amezi 12 nyuma y’uko ugiteye mu butaka. Nyamara ni ngombwa gukuraho imbuto za mbere zikibumba kugirango imizi yacyo ibanze ifate neza mu butaka. Iyo wagihinze ugamije isoko igiti cyimara igihe gito mu butaka, ni ukuvuga imyaka iri hagati y’ine na 6.
Nyamara ariko iyo ucyitayeho neza ukagiha ifumbire n’amazi bikwiye gishobora kugeza ku myaka iri hagati ya 12 na 15 kigitanga umusaruro. Itsinda ry’indabo 20 rishobora gutanga imbuto zeze kuva kuri 4 kugeza kuri 5. Indabo zitabanguriwe ntizitanga umusaruro. Nyuma yo kurabya kimara ibyumweru bigera kuri 25 kugirango kibe cyeze neza.
Akamaro k’ibinyomoro mu mirire y’abantu
Ikinyomoro kigira vitamini C ku rugero rutandukanye bitewe n’ubwoko bwacyo, cyakora biri mu mbuto zizwi ziyikizeho cyane. Ibinyomoro bifi te kandi ibituma bishobora kugira uruhare mu kurwanya indwara nka cancers n’indwara zimwe na zimwe z’umutima. Izo ntungamubiri ni nka anthocyanins, beta-carotène, lutein,beta-cryptoxanthin a zeanthin. Ikinyomoro gifi te kandi n’ibinyamasukari bitanga ingufu. Ibinyomoro bikize kandi kuri vitamini A, B6, na E ndetse no ku myunyu nka Ferna Potassium. Ikinyomoro gikennye ariko ku bitangangufu ndetse no kuri fi bres.
Guhinga ikinyomoro
Icyitonderwa mbere yo gutera ibinyomoro
Mbere yo gutera ibinyomoro ni ngombwa gusuzuma ibi bikurikira:

  • Ahazaturuka umurama
  • Ahazaterwa ibinyomoro
  • Inzira uzanyuramo kugirango ubone ingemwe (umurama cyangwa ingeri)
  • Uko uzategura umurima
  • Igihe cyo gutera ingemwe Ni ngombwa kandi gutekereza ku buryo uzakata igihingwa cyawe ngetse n’uburyo uzakitaho igihe cyamaze gufata mu murima.
Aho gihingwa n’uburyo gihingwa
Igihe cyo guhinga ibinyomoro: ibinyomoro bihingwa igihe cy’imvura cyane cyane igihe
cy’umuhindo ni ukuvuga mu kwezi kwa nzeri ndetse n’ ukwakira.
Ubutaka: Ubutaka buterwamo ibinyomoro bwakagombye kuba bufi te ubushyuhe bwa dogere 24-29°C
Imvura
Ibinyomoro bikunda ahantu hagwa imvura igabanyije neza mu mwaka , iri ku gipimo cya mm 1200- 3000 ku mwaka. Iyo nta mvura iriho cyane cyane igihe cy’izuba ni ngombwa kubivomerera. Kuvomerera hakoreshejwe amazi arenze akenewe bituma irwara indwara zo mu bwoko bw’uduhumyo (imiyege). Igihe nta mvura igwa ikinyomoro gishobora kwihanganira izuba ariko icyo gihe nta musaruro umusaruro uba muke n’imbuto zikaba nto cyane.
Umuyaga
Ubusanzwe ikinyomoro ntikihanganira imiyaga. Niyo mpamvu ahantu hateye ibinyomoro hakagombye gukikizwa n’inzitiro zitangira umuyaga.
Ubutumburuke bw’imisozi
Uhereye aho ibinyomoro byakomotse byera neza mu misozi miremire igwamo imvura nyinshi yo mu gihugu cya Brezil na Equateur. Ibi bituma ibihugu byinshi bihinga ibinyomoro ibarizwa hafi y’imirongo yo tropique ahari imisozi miremire hagwa n’imvura nyinshi. Muri ibyo bihugu ibinyomoro byera neza ku butumburuke buri hagati ya metero 300 na metero 3000 uvuye ku Nyanja.
Gutegura umurama
Sibyiza gukoresha umurama cyangwa ingemwe z’ibinyomoro zivuye ahabonetse hose utitaye kureba niba igiti zaturutseho kitagaragaza uburwayi. Imbuto y’ikinyomoro igomba guturuka ku giti kitagaragaza uburwayi ubwo ari bwo bwose. Birabujijwe gutera bene izo ngemwe kuko iyo uteye bene izo ngemwe zikunze gukwirakwiza uburwayi.
Gutegura umurama uzatanga ingemwe
Guhitamo aho umurama w’ibinyomoro uzaturuka mbere yo gutegura ihinga ni igikorwa
cy’ingenzi kuko uburyo imbuto y’ibinyomoro itoranyijwemo nibwo butuma witegura kuzabona umusaruro mwiza cyangwa umurima urwaye. Mu guhitamo aho umurama w’ibinyomoro uzaturuka ni ngombwa kwitondera ibi bikurikira :
  • Hitamo igiti cy’ikinyomoro kitagaragaza uburwayi na buke cyakuze neza cyera amatunda menshi kandi manini.
- Sarura imbuto z’ibinyomoro zeze neza zidafi te ubusembwa zahishije neza (yabaye umutuku,orange cyangwa umuhondo)
  • Mbere yo kuzikata banza uzironge mu mazi arimo Jik (urugero 1 rwa Jik mu ngero 3 z’amazi) cyangwa amazi arimo umunyu w’igisoryo. Ibi byica indwara zaba ziri ku gishishwa cy’inyuma cyangwa ku gihu ntizigere ku mbuto z’imbere. Ibiro bitatu by’ibinyomoro birongwa mu mazi ya litiro 20
- Satura imbuto z’ibinyomoro mo kabiri uvanemo imbuto zivanze n’umutobe ukoresheje
ikiyiko. Hanyuma ubishyire mu icupa ripfundikirwa wongeremo amazi upfundikire,
hanyuma uhugutishe imbuto (ubuhwa) zivanze n’umurenda, ubihugutishe iminsi 5
kugeza kuri 14 ubicugusa nibura kabiri ku munsi (mu gitondo na nimugoroba) kugirango byivange.
  • Imbuto zimaze guhuguta zirongwa mu mazi arimo javeli (5%) kugirango ibyatera indwara za seputoriya ndetse n’utundi dukoko bipfe. Mu kuronga ugomba kwitondera kumaraho umurenda.
  • Imbuto umaze kuronga zishyire mu ibase cyangwa mu gatambaro kera gasukuye uzishyire mu gacucu ku buryo zikamukamo amazi,
  • Ubuhwa bubonetse bwanikwa ku nkoko mu gicucu iminsi 3 kugeza kuri 4 hanyuma zikavangwa mu ntoki . Ibyo birangiye umurama uragosorwa.
  • Umurama ubonetse ushobora guhita uhumbikwa
    - Niba udahita uzitera uzibike ahantu humutse ariko hahehereye mu mabahasha y’impapuro ariko nturenze amezi 3 utarazitera kuko iyo arenze zitamera kubera ko ubushobozi bwo kumera (pouvoir germinatif) bw’umurama bugenda bugabanuka cyane.
Gukora ubuhumbikiro
Bumwe mu buryo bukunze gukoreshwa mu rwego rwo gushaka ingemwe z’ibinyomoro ni ukwinaza umurama mu buhumbikiro. Ubu buryo ni bwo bukunze gukoreshwa cyane ariko si bwo bwonyine bukoreshwa mu kubona ingemwe z’ibinyomoro. Ingemwe z’ibinyomoro zishobora kuboneka hanakoreshejwe ingeri cyangwa zituburiwe muri laboratwari.
• Gutabira neza ibyatsi bigashira ahagenewe kuzajya ubuhumbikiro
• Gutegura imitabo: umutabo ugira ubugari bwa m 1 uburebura bugaterwa n’umubare w’ngemwe ukeneye. Hagati y’umutabo n’undi hasigara akayira ka cm 50
• Gufumbira neza ubutaka; igihe ubutaka busharira bwongerwamo ishwagara
• Gucamo uturongo ku buryo dutandukanywa na cm 5 hagati y’akarongo n’akandi ni ukuvuga imirongo 20 mu bugari bwa buri mutabo
• Hakurikiraho kubiba umurama w’ibinyomoro ku bujyakuzimu bwa mm10 hirindwa kuwegeranya.
• Gutwikira n’ubutaka muri twa turongo twabibwemo umurama w’ibinyomoro hanyuma ugatsindagira ubutaka gahoro gahoro. Mu gutwikira bakoresha utwatsi dukeya ahasigaye ukavomerera rimwe ku munsi mu gihe cy’ibyumweru bibiri cyangwa bitatu
• Kubakira ubuhumbikiro no kubusakara
• Uvanaho isaso iyo utugemwe tumaze kumera
• Iyo utugemwe tugize nibura cm 5 ni ukuvuga nibura nyuma y’ukwezi twimurirwa mu bihoho byateguwe muri pepiniyeri

Kwimurira ingemwe mu bihoho (muri Pepiniyeri)

Pepiniyeri yubakwa ahegereye amazi kugirango kuvomerera byorohe. Hagomba kuba kandi ari hafi y’inzira nyabagendwa kugirango bizoroshye gutwara ingemwe ariko hakaba hitaruye imirima y’ibinyomoro kugirango hirindwe indwara.
Iyo umaze guhitamo ahazajya pepiniyeri hakurikiraho imirimo ikurikira:
• Gutabira hatunganywa ahazajya pepiniyeri no kuharinganiza neza.
• Gupima no guca imitabo basiga hagati y’umutabo n’undi cm 50-80 z’akayira naho umutabo ukagira m 1,20 z’ubugari, uburebure bugaterwa n’umubare w’ingemwe wifuzwa.
• Imitabo ikikizwa ingeri z’ibiti kugirango zitangire ibihoho birimo ingemwe
• Kubaka pepiniyeri no kuyisakara
• Gupakira itaka mu bihoho bifi te cm 20 z’umurambararo na cm 40 z’ubuhagarike
• Gupanga ibihoho mu mitabo hagati y’ingiga zizengurutse imitabo
• Utugemwe tugemekwa mu bihoho nyuma y’iminsi 7 kugeza kuri 14 tumaze kumera mu buhumbikiro. Ni ukuvuga ko tuba dufi te cm 5 tumaze kugira amababi 2 cyangwa 3
• Hakurikiraho kujya bavomerera nibura 2 ku munsi mu gitondo na nimugoroba. Ni
ngombwa kwibuka kumenera ubutaka mu bihoho igihe cyose bigaragara ko ari
ngombwa
• Ingemwe zimaze kugira cm 15-25 ni ukuvuga zifi te igihe cy’amezi 2 nyuma yo kwinaza zishobora kwimurirwa mu murima wateguwe neza.
Gutera Umurima mushya w’ibinyomoro ushyirwa kure y’umurima ushaje bishobotse hagashyirwaho uruzitiro rw’ibiti (haie vive) rutandukanya iyo mirima yombi. Aha hashobora gukoreshwa ibiti bitanga ifumbire y’azote kugirango bitangire ibyonnyi kimwe n’indwara ziva mu murima umwe zijya mu wundi. Ibi bigira ingaruka nziza ku bidukikije bikanatuma uburumbuke bw’ubutaka bwiyongera. Igihe bitewe ku misozi ihanamye bifasha kurwanya isuri no gukomeza ubutaka.
Himurwa kandi hagaterwa gusa ingemwe zidafi te indwara iyo ari yo yose, zifi te amababi y’icyatsi kibisi gitoshye. Umuntu agomba gukoresha ingemwe ziturutse muri pepiniyeri izwi neza cyangwa ahandi hantu hazwiho gutunganya ingemwe nziza. Ni ngombwa kwirinda gutera ingemwe zigaragaza ubusembwa (ibibabi bifi te ibibara cyangwa zita amababi), zinanutse, zifite imizi yafatanye cyangwa y’umuhondo. Mbere yo kwimurira ingemwe z’ibinyomoro mu
murima, umuhinzi agomba kureba niba zarabonye akazuba kazikomeza (hardening off).
Ni ngombwa gukurikiza intambwe zikurikira kugira ngo ugire ingemwe nziza za marakuja:
• Kuvomerera ingemwe ku mugoroba ubanziriza umunsi zizaterwaho
• Gutera ingemwe kare mu gitondo cyangwa ku mugoroba (ari nabyo byiza) kugirango
ubuhehere bw’ijoro buzifashe kwisubira. Nta na rimwe ingemwe zigomba guterwa igihe
cy’izuba ryinshi .
• Gucukura umwobo uruta mu bugari no mu bujyakuzimu igihoho kirimo urugemwe
• Kuvanaho igihoho, gushyira urugemwe mu mwobo ku buryo igice cyarwo gifatanye
n’itaka ryari mu gihoho riringanira n’ubutaka bw’umurima. Gusubiza itaka mu mwobo
ugenda utsindagira buhoro buhoro kugeza ubwo bugera ku mizi ku buryo umuzi utihina, hanyuma ugatenguriramo itaka ryo ku nkombe z’umwobo ku buryo riringanira n’aho
itaka ryari mu gihoho ryagarukiraga.
• Gutsindagira ubutaka bw’i ruhande no kuvomerera
• Gusasira hakoreshejwe isaso ya cm 10 kugirango ubutaka bwegereye urugemwe
rwatewe bugumane ubuhehere no kugirango hagabanywe ibyatsi bibi. Ibi kandi bituma
ibitonyanga by’imvura bidakwirakwiza indwara ziri mu butaka.
• Mu gihe cy’izuba, ni ngombwa kubakira urugemwe umaze gutera, noneho ibyatwikirijwe bikajya bivanwaho buhoro buhoro.
Ni ngombwa gutera ingemwe z’ibinyomoro igihe imvura itangiye kugwa kugira ngo bishobore gufata neza. Ibi bikorwa mu kwezi kwa nzeri n’ukwakira. Ibinyomoro biterwa mu mirongo bitandukanyijwe n’intera iri hagati ya m 1 na 1,5 m hagati y’igiti n’ikindi na metero 4.5-5.0 hagati y’umurongo n’undi. Iyi ntera ituma ibinyomoro bidacucikirana mu murima kandi
igabanya ikwirakwiza ry’indwara kandi ituma gukata ibinyomoro no gutera umuti byoroha.
Iyi ntera irahagije ku buryo iyo ibinyomoro byeze bihumeka kandi bigakomera kuko ibishatse kugwa bifatwa n’ibindi.
Ku ntera ya Metero 1.5 hagati y’igiti n’ikindi na metero 4.5 hagati y’imirongo haterwa nibura ingemwe 1450 kuri hegitari.
Ingemwe zakuriranye zikomoka ku murama zirakatwa mbere yo kuzitera mu murima. Bazikatira nibura kuri cm 50 kubirango igiti nigishibuka , ibishibu bizaturuke hasi (kuko ubusanzwe bishibuka bigeze kuri metero nk’ebyiri). Nyamara kandi ingemwe zituruka ku ngeri zikurana ibishibu byinshi bigomba kugabanywa kugirango amashamu atangirire ku ntera ihagije uvuye ku butaka.
Igihe hatewe umurama havuka ingemwe zimeze nka nyina naho ingeri ziterwa zifi te nibura uburebure bwa cm hagati ya 60 na 90. Ingemwe zishobora gukatwa kugirango igiti kizagire amashami menshi kandi ntikizashurumbuke ngo kivunike. Ingemwe ziturutse ku ngemwe zirakura cyane ariko izikomoka ku ngeri ziba ngufi kandi zikagira amashami menshi (ibi ariko nanone biterwa n’igiti ingeri zitewe zaturutseho).
Ahantu haba umuyaga ukabije, intera hagati y’igiti n’ikindi iragabanuka. Ni ngombwa gukuraho Indabo zikurwaho mu mwaka wa mbere kugirango imizi irusheho gufata neza mu butaka.
Ni ngombwa kwibuka ko igiti gikatwa bihagije buri mwaka kugirango gitange amashami menshi azatanga imbuto, bakagikatira ku burebure bwa metero imwe kugeza kuri 1,20m. Ahenshi bakunze guhita bacyongera ifumbire y’imborera. Mu mwaka wa gatanu bongeramo ifumbire ingana na tone hagati ya 4 na 6 zivanze na phosphate ndetse na nitrate ya soda ndetse na sulphate de potasse . Ni ngombwa kugikata buri mwaka ukuraho amashami aherutse kwera. Iyo gikase neza bituma igihe cy’isarura kiyongera bikanoroshya igikorwa cy’isarura. Ni ngombwa
Indwara n’ibyonnyi
Ikinyomoro gihura n’ibibazo bitandukanye bishobora kugabanuka bitewe n’uburyo kitaweho.
Isazi zishobora kuruma urubuto, igishishwa gikingira urubuto kuko gikomeye ariko nyamara urubuto ntiruba rukigaragara neza bityo bigatuma ku isoko rutagurwa neza kubera isura mbi.
Ikibazo gikunze kugaragara cyane mu binyomoro ni indwara yitwa powederly milew iterwa na mikorobe zo mu bwoko bw’ubuhumyo zitwa Oidium sp bikagabanywa no gutera insecticide ivanze n’isabune cyangwa imiti ikomoka kuri neem. Hari kandi inzoka z’ibihingwa (nematodes iterwa n’inzoka yitwa Meloidogyne sp), root rot (kubora kw’imizi) cyangwa crown rot iterwa na phyotophthora sp) no kuraba biterwa na pseudomonas solanacearum. Kwita neza ku murima uteyemo ibinyomora bigabanya izi ndwara.
Gusarura
Urubuto rw’ibinyomoro rushobora kugira uburebure buri hagati ya cm 2 n’umunani . Urubuto rusarurwa rufi te akarizo karwo cyangwa rugasigarana igice cy’akarizo. Kubera ko igihu cy’urubuto gikomeye bituma abasarura bahita barushyira mu gafuka cyangwa mu ikarito basarurimo nta kibazo. Urubuto ruhisha neza mu gihe cy’ibyumweru biri hagati ya 6 n’umunani ariko ibi bigaterwa n’ubutumburuke bw’imisozi ibinyomoro byahinzweho.
Ubusanzwe kuri acre imwe hashobora gusarurwa kugeza kuri toni 6. Igiti kimwe kikaba gishobora gutanga umusaruro ungana cyangwa usumbye pounds 60 ku mwaka.
Ubwiza bw’umusaruro Imbuto zisaruwe ku binyomoro zishobora kubikwa kugeza ku byumweru 9 iyo zibitswe ku bukonje bwa dogere 4 kugeza kuri 10 hamwe n’ubuhehere bwa 90 kugeza kuri 95%. Iyo zibitswe mu bukonje buri munsi y’ubwo zirangirika. Naho iyo zishyizwe mu bukonje buri hejuru ya 20 zitangira kubora. Iyo ibinyomoro bihase bishobora gutunganywa mu nganda cyangwa bikabikwa muri frigo.
Ibinyomoro bitangira gusarurwa mu mwaka wa kabiri bitewe, bigatangirana umusaruro muke ugera kuri toni 4 kuri hegitari. Uyu musaruro ugenda wiyongera ku buryo mu mwaka wa kane ushobora kugera kuri toni 16 kuri hegitari. Hanyuma uyu musaruro ukagenda ugabanuka mu myaka ikurikiraho ku buryo muri rusange ikinyomoro kimara imyaka umunani mu murima.
IKiguzi cyo guhinga ibinyomoro
Mu busanzwe igiti cy’ibinyomoro gishobora gutanga umusaruro w’ibiro 22. Ku isoko ikirocy’ibinyomoro kimwe kigurwa amafaranga 500 i Kigali . Ibi bigatanga amafaranga angana 11000 ku giti ku mwaka. Gutera igiti, kugifumbira, kukivomerera no kugikata bishobora gutwara amafaranga angana 5000 ku mwaka naho gusarura no kugeza umusaruro ku isoko bigatwara amafaranga 1500 ku mwaka. Ku buryo ku mwaka urebye guhinga ikinyomoro, kugisarura no kukigeza ku isoko bishobora gutwara amafaranga 6500. Inyungu ivamo ikaba yagera ku mafaranga 5500 ku giti ku mwaka.
Kwita ku binyomoro mu murima
Iyo ikinyomoro gifite uburebure bwa metero 1-1.5 biba byiza iyo uhise ugikata imizi ku ruhande rumwe hanyuma ukakigonda ( lean) ku rundi ruhande (aha ugiha imfuruka ingana na dogere 30 kugera kuri 45). Ibi bituma havuka amashami ashibuka ku ruti aho gushibukira ku mutwe bityo akazatanga imbuto.
Aho bikuwe:
Website : www.rhoda.gov.rw
Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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