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Ubuhinzi bwa makadamia

 Ubuhinzi bwa makadamia MACADAMIA(MAKADAMIYA)

AHO MACADAMIA YERA MU RWANDA:

Makadamiya ishobora kwera ahantu hose hera Kawa hafite imvura ya mm 800-1900 n’ubutumburuke bw’imisozi migufi kugera ku miremire ya metero 750-2.250. Yihanganira imvura nke kurusha Kawa, iri hagati ya mm 750-1.000 nkuko byagaragaye i Karama mu Bugesera.

UTURERE TUBERANYE NA MACADAMIA:
(a) Utuberanye na Macadamia cyane: Umurambi wo hagati mu Rwanda n’uturere tw’urusekabuye(Intara y’amajyepfo n’iyiburasira zuba,n’amajyepfo y’intara y’amajyaruguru),umurambiw’iburasizuba n’nkengero z’ikiyaga cya Kivu n’Impala.

(b) Uturere tuberanye na Macadamia mu rugero: Bugesera, Mayaga,Umukenke w’iburasirazuba, Isunzu rya Kongo-Nil ryose.

(c) Uturere tuberanye na Macadamia buhoro: Akarere k’amakoro, imisozi miremire y’ububeruka.

AMOKO :
Makadamia ifite amoko abiri, hari ubwoko bufite igishishwa cyoroshye n’amavuta menshi(73 78% ariyo Macadamia Integrifolia) ari nayo yamamazwa mu Rwanda, muri Africa no ku isi yose n’ubwoko bufite igishishwa gikomeye n’amavuta make (Macadamia Tetraphylia)

INGENGABIHE NO GUTUNGANYA IMBUTO N’INGEMWE:

Igiti cya Macadamia kirakura kikageza ku burebure bwa metero 10- 15.Gisaba ubushyuhe bwa 15-28°c. Imbuto z’indobanure zikwiranye n’uturere nizo batera,ingero ni nka KRG15,EMB-1,MRG-20 na KMB z’ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi mu buhinzi cya Kenya(KARI) zamamazwa
mu Rwanda.

Imbuto zinikwa mu mazi amasaha 72 (iminsi 3), bahindura amazi buri munsi kugira ngo zidahuguta, ziterwa mu buhumbikiro bufite imitabo ya metero 1 y’ubugari na metro 8-10 z’uburebure irimo umusenyi wa centimetro 20 z’ubujyakuzimu. Batera mu mirongo ya centimetero 8 hagati y’umurongo n’undi, centimetero 1 hagati y’urubuto n’urundi na centimetero 3 z’ibujyakuzimu. Zimera nyuma y’iminsi 21-45, ni ngombwa kuzivomera buri munsi.

Nyuma y’amezi abiri bazigemurira mu bihoho bya cm 15 z’umurambararo kuri cm 18 z’uburebure, z’ifite ibibabi 4 bikomeye.
Bazishyira muri pepiniyeri isakaye ku buryo itanga urumuri rwa 40- 50% zikamaramo amezi 2 kugeza kuri 3. Ingemwe bazibangurira zimaze amezi 6 kugera kuri 12 bazigemuye ziba zifite uburebure bwa cm 10-15 zifite ibibabi 8 cg 10.Nyuma yo kubangurira zimurirwa muri pepiniyeri aho zimara amezi 2-3 aho zibona urumuri rungana na 40-50%. Mbere yo kuzitera mu murima zimenyerezwa izuba andi mezi 2-3.Ingemwe ziterwa mu murima ziteguwe amazi 18.
Mu gushyira igitaka mu bihoho, ntibuzuza umwobo kugirango haboneke ahazashyirwa amazi avomerera, bavomerera 3 mu cyumweru mu mezi 3 ya mbere

UKO BATERA MAKADAMIA N’IMIRIMO IKORERWA INGEMWE ZITERWA.
Umurima utunganywa neza mu gihe cy’izuba(icyi) barima inshuro 2 mbere yo gutera. Bacukura imyobo ya cm 60 z’umurambararo na cm 60 z’ibujyakuzimu bashyiramo udutebo 2 tw’ifumbire y’imborera ivanze n’igitaka cyo hejuru na garama 60 za NPK 20.10.10.

Batera makadamia mu gihe cy’imvura kuri metero 7.5 hagati y’imirongo na metero 7.5 hagati y’igiti n’ikindi(ibiti 178 kuri ha) mu murima wihariye cg metero 10 na matero 10 hagati y’imirongo n’igiti n’ikindi mu murima bazavanga n’ibindi bihingwa. Kuvanga makadamiya n’ibindi bihingwa bituma umurima ubyazwa umusaruro mwinshi mu gihe kimwe. Ibinyamisogwe nk`ibishyimbo, soya n`ubunyobwa byongera azote mu butaka. Ubwatsi bw’amatungo nka desimodiyumu na Leuceana birwanya ibyatsi bibi. Imbuto ziribwa nka Maracuja, inanasi, amapapayi bibangikana neza na makadamiya.

Batera imirongo 2 cg 3 y’imbuto ziribwa nyuma y’umurongo 1 wa makadamiya, ni byiza kuyibangikanya n’indi myaka mu myaka 7 ya mbere, bayitera no mpande z’imirima no ku miryanyasuri.

Bashingirira ingemwe kugirango zitazunguzwa n’umuyaga mwinshi, basasira muri cm 10-15 uvuye ku giti, ntikunda gukatwa cyane.

Bakuraho amashami yavunitse cg ayumye agakatwa yegerejwe igihimba kugirango igiti gihagarare neza.

ISARURA, UMURUMBUKO N’IKORESHWA RYA MAKADAMIYA.
Igiti cya makadamiya kibanguriye gitangira kwera nyuma y’imyaka 4-5. Umusaruro ugenda wiyongera uko kigenda gikura, igiti kimwe gitanga umurumbuko wa kilo 50-75 buri mwaka gifite imyaka 10-15.

Kiraramba cyane kandi cyera neza kugeza ku myaka 80-100. Imbuto za makadamiya zeze zirigusha, zigatoragurwa nyuma y’iminsi 1-2.

Ntibyemewe gusarura imbuto zikiri ku giti kuko utamenya izeze n’iziteze. Zanikwa ku kidasesa gitobaguye gifite imyobo ya mm 6-7 ahantu hari igicucu kugirango zidaturagurika hakinjiramo udukoko twazangiza. Zihunikwa ahantu humutse kandi hari ubukonje n’ubushyuhe buringaniye, kure y’ibintu binuka byazitera nazo kunuka, hatagera udukoko.

Ziribwa zumye cg zikaranze. Mu nganda bakoramo ibisuguti, gato cyangwa se shokora, umushongi uryohera witwa „ice cream“ n’ibindi. Zikungahaye ku mavuta meza atekwa,mu nganda z’imiti akorwamo amavuta yo kwisiga,ibikatsi bikorwamo ibribwa by’amatungo,ibishishwa barabicana.

INTUNGAMUBIRI, AGACIRO N’INYUNGU MAKADAMIYA YAZANIRA ABAHINZI BAYO.

Imbuto za makadamiya zitanga ibivumbikisho bihanitse (Kcal 7.350 ku kilo), zifite amavuta menshi aruta ibindi bihingwa (73-78%) by’ibinyamavuta (ubunyobwa 44.8%,soya-15.7%), kandi ntifite ibinure bitera indwara. Zikize muri vitamini( A, B,C) n’imyunyu (Ca,P,Fer)
Makadamiya irakenewe cyane ku isoko mpuzamahanga aho igura amadolari 10-20 ku Kilo. Umusaruro uboneka ku isi ni 45% ku ukenewe. Umuhinzi mu Rwanda yejeje kilo 50-75 ku giti kimwe igiciro ari 350 Rwf/kilo yabona amafaranga 17.500-26.000 ku giti 1 ku mwaka.( Muri Kenya kilo 1 ni amashilingi 50 angana n`amafaranga y`u Rwanda 350Rwf.

TWIFASHISHIJE igitabo:DUHINGE KIJYAMBERE

Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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