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Ubuhinzi bw’Ibihumyo


 Ubuhinzi bw’Ibihumyo Muri iki gihe, abahinzi borozi bahura n’ibibazo bitoroshye ubutaka buhingwa bugabanuka buri munsi, umusaruro wabwo nawo ukagenda ugabanuka kandi no kugera ku ntego yo kwihaza mu biribwa no kurwanya ikibazo cy ‘imirire mibi ntibyoroshye .Kuri ubu hatekerejwe uburyo ubutaka buto dufite bwabyazwa umusaruro mu gihe gito kandi bukabyara inyungu ku buryo byafasha umuturage kubona ibimutunga. Uburyo tugiye kubagezaho bukaba ari ubuhinzi bw’ibihumyo bihingwa mu butaka bwitwa Pleurotus Osteatus.
Iyi nfashanyigisho dukesha ikigo cyahoze cyitwa RHODA cyaje guhurizwa hamwe n’ibindi bikabyara RAB, irasobanura uburyo bworoshye kandi bunononsoye bwo guhinga ibihumyo byo mu butaka ,iragaragaza akamaro ntungamubiri k’ ibyo biribwa, ikerekana umusaruro ndinganire w’ubuhinzi bw’ibihumyo.
AMATEKA Y’IBIHUMYO N’AKAMARO KABYO AMATEKA KU BIHUMYO BIRIBWA
Ubusanzwe ibihumyo babikundira uburyohe bwabyo ndetse no kuba bikungahaye ku ntungamubiri.Ubundi abantu bari bamenyereye ibihumyo byimeza.Ubushakashatsi kuri icyo gihingwa bwatangiye kera, ariko ntibwigeze bugera ku ntego. Ibitabo bigaragaza ko igihumyo bita «Oreille de Judée » (Auricalaria) cyatangiye guhingwa mu myaka 600 nyuma y’ivuka rya Yezu.
Mu Bufaransa, igihumyo cyitwa Agaricus cyatangiwe guhingwa guhera mu 1650 gikwirakwira mu bihugu byinshi byo ku isi nyuma y’intambara ya kabiri y’isi yose.
Mu Rwanda, kuva 1986 nibwo umugabo TECHNOSERVE yatangiye guteza imbere ubuhinzi bw’ibihumyo byo rwego rwa Pleurote mu Rwanda, icyo gihe kandi yatangiye no kwigisha uburyo bakora umurama wabyo. Nyamara icyo gihe ibihumyo byahingwaga n’abantu batuye mu mijyi nka Kigali na Butare gusa, ntibyigeze bikwira ahantu henshi kuko Leta itigeze iteganya uburyo bwo kubishyigikira no kubyamamaza; kandi hakaba hari hakiriho inzitizi z’umuco.
Mu 1997, nibwo PNUD yongeye gutera inkunga icyo gihingwa cy’ibihumyo no kwigisha abantu bibumbiye mu mashyirahamwe gukora imirama, ariko kugeza 2003 byari bigikorwa n’abantu bacye bitarakwira hose. Hakaba harahingwaga ibihumyo byo mu nzu gusa. Kuva muri 2003 nibwo MINAGRI yashyize ingufu
mu guteza imbere ubuhinzi bw’ibihumyo bihingwa mu butaka (JUNCAO Technology), kugeza ubwo muri 2006 hatangijwe uruganda rukora umurama w’ibihumyo hifashishijwe JUNCAO Technology .
AKAMARO KO GUHINGA IBIHUMYO
Ibihumyo bifite akamaro gakurikira :
Ibihumyo bigira intungamubiri nyinshi cyane, zikubye 2 ugereranije n’inyama ndetse n’ibindi bihingwa duhereye ko bikize ku ntunga mubiri nka proteine, imyunyu ngugu n’amavitamine amwe n’amwe (B1,B2), nk’uko bigaragara mu mbonerahamwe ikurikira :

Mu buzima :
Mu rwego rw’Imibereho y’abantu :
Ibihumyo birinda indwara z’imirire mibi,
Ibihumyo bituma igifu gikora neza;
Ibihumyo byongera ubushobozi bw’umubiri mukwirwanaho
Ibihumyo birinda indwara zijyanye no kugira amaraso make.
Ibihumyo bisaba ahantu hato cyane kandi bikera ku butaka ubwo aribwo bwose mu Gihugu ku buryo n’imiryango ikennye cyangwa ituye mu mujyi ishobora kubihinga .
Urugero :kuri 1m² iri mugisharagati haterwa imigina 64, umugina umwe ushobora gusarurwaho kuva ku 400g kugeza ku kg 2.5 mu gihe cy’amezi atatu.
Ibihumyo byerera igihe gito cyane hagati y’iminsi 7-10 uba utangiye gusarura, kandi ukamara amezi 3 usarura ahantu hamwe mu bihe bitandukanye ;
Mu rwego rw’Ubukungu :
Gutangira ntibisaba amafaranga menshi, kuko ibihumbi 20000 bishobora guhinga nibura m2 2 kandi ukaba ushobora gusarura umusaruro wagurisha kugeza ku mafaranga ibihumbi ijana na mirongo inani kugeza ku bihumbi magana abiri (180.000-200.000) , ibi rero bikaba byatuma n’abakene babihinga.
Ibihumyo ntibisaba ikorana buhanga rihambaye (rihanitse).
Ni igihingwa ngenga bukungu kuko ku masoko asanzwe mu gihugu igiciro k’ibihumyo kiri hagati ya 1000 na 2000 frw ;
Ibihumyo bifasha urubyiruko n’abagore kwihangira imirimo kandi bishobora kuba igisubizo cy’ubukene mu Rwanda.

UKO IBIHUMYO BIHINGWA
Hari uburyo bubiri butandukanye bwo guhinga ibihumyo :
Hari ibihumyo bihingwa mu nzu hari n’ibyo bahinga mu butaka; ibyo twibandaho muri iyi mfashanyigisho akaba ari ibyo mu butaka
IBIGIZE IGIHINGWA CY’IBIHUMYO
*Umurama : Ni uruvange rw’ibyatsi biseye bongeramo umwayi bikamara iminsi 40 kugeza kuri 45 ngo umurama ube wakwiriye muri tube hose (ugeze igihe cyo guterwa)
Dukoresha ibi bikurikira mu gukora umurama: urubingo; ibikatsi by’ibisheke; ibigorigori; ibishekesheke; ibikenyeri; ibishogoshogo by’ingano; by’ibishyimbo; by’umuceri, ibibarara
by’ipamba ; ibishogoshogo by’uburo ( ibyo byose ubyiyambaje bishobora kuguha uruvange rw’umurama rwiza).
Twifashisha ubwoko bw’ibyatsi bw’ibihingwa byinshi binyuranye kandi biboneka muri aka Karere kacu mu rwego rwo kurengera ibidukikije.
Ibikoresho bifashisha mu gutegura umurama :
Imbingo,
Ibikongorwa by’ibisheke,
Ibikenyeri by’amasaka,
Ibigorigori n’ibindi,
Imashini eshatu
Nyuma yo kubona ibyo bikoresho nibwo utangira gutegura umurama nyirizina.
Kumisha imbingo
Kubisya n’imashini ikabihinduramo ifu.
Kubishyira mu mashini ya 2 irimo amazi ikabihindura umutsima
Kubishyira mu mashini ya 3 ikabiha forme y’agacupa (tube) ari naho bizaguma kugeza igihe cyo kubitera .
Iyo umaze kuzikura mumashini ya 3 ubijyana ahandi hantu wateguye neza ukazitereka ku mbaho, twa ducupa (tube) uba wadushyize ku gatebo kabugenewe
Ubwo uba wateguye n’ingunguru ifite amatiyo 2 n’amazi ugacanira, ya matiyo akohereza umwuka ushyushye hahandi hateretse twa tudobo turimo twa ducupa ukabirekera aho igihe cy’amasaha 24 kugirango ukore sterilisation.
Nyuma yayo masaha tuba tumaze guhora neza (tubes) ushyiramo umwayi (innoculation hanyuma ukayijyana muri chambre ya incubation (Guhumbika : umurama ukwirakwira muri ya shashi (tube) mu gihe cy’iminsi iri hagati ya 30 – 45 ibitswe ahantu hafite ubushyuhe buri hagati ya dogere 20 – 24.
Ibikoresho nkenerwa byo kuvangira umurama mu ngano (quantité)
ibikoresho % ingano
Ifu y’urubingo 78% 39 Kg
son de riz 20% 10kg
ishwagara 2% 1kg
ifumbire (urée) 0.2% 0.1kg
Ibi byose ukabivanga n’amazi angana na 65 l.Ibi bikora imigina 100, uko umurama ugenda ukwira mu matubes
NI GUTE DUHINGA IBIHUMYO
Aho duhinga ibihumyo (igisharagati – ikibandahure)
Mu buhinzi bw’ibihumyo singobwa kubaka inzu ikomeye, ihenze, isaba ibikoresho bihambaye cyangwa ubundi buhanga. ubuhehere, n’urunyurane rw’umwuka nibyo byitabwaho (bikenewe)
Urugero rw’Ikibandahure /Igisharagate cya mpande eshatu (Triangle shelter).
Uburebure : 8m
Ubugali : 3.6m
Ubuhagalike :2.8m
Umutabo umwe ugira :7m x 0.9m. x 0.2m/0.3
Icyitonderwa : 1m2 ujyaho imigina 64
Iyo umaze gukora igisharagati ucukuramo uturingoti dufite hagati ya cm 25 na 30 uzateramo imigina yawe, warangiza ugafata imigina (tubes) ugakuraho ya shashi no neho ugatereka mu butaka utondekanya ku murongo , warangiza ukorosaho agataka ka cm 1 noneho ukavomerera n’amazi. Iyo umaze kuvomerera ushyiraho isashe igondeye ku biti kugira ngo hagumemo ubuhehere kandi here kumagana kugeza igihe bitangiye kuzamuka
Igihe ibihumyo bizamuka.
Iyo byatangiye kuzamuka,utwikurura ya sashe mbere ya saa moya za mugitondo mu gihe cy’igice cy’isaha igihe imvura itaguye, ukongera gutwikurura nanone igice cy’isaha izuba rirenze.
Mu gihe cy’ubushuhe bwinshi ushobora gusuka amazi hahandi hateye byibura (300ml/umugina) buri kigoroba kugeza igihe ibihe bibaye byiza, kandi ukirinda gusuka amazi ku bihumyo bizamuka

Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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