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Ubuhinzi bw’Ibishyimbo

 Ubuhinzi bw’Ibishyimbo Igishyimbo gikomoka mu turere two muri Amerika dushyuha, ni ikinyamisogwe gihingwa cyane kubera agaciro kanini gihabwa n’ubwinshi bw’ibyubaka umubiri gikungahayeho.-
Gusarura
Ibishyimbo bisarurwa bimaze amezi abiri n’igice kugeza kuri atatu (ibishyimbo bigufi) bihinzwe, n’amezi atatu kugeza kuri atanu (imishingiriro) bitewe n’akarere n’ imbuto.
Bisarurwa mu buryo bukurikira :
Imishingiriro, imiteja (imitanyu) yumye barayihura bakayishyira mu mifuka cyangwa mu bitebo bakayijyana mu rugo aho byongera kwanikwa bihagije.
Icyitonderwa
Muri iki gikorwa ni ngombwa kugenzura ko imiteja yose yavanywe ku bi# (ibitsinsi) byayo kugira ngo hatagira igisigara mu murima.
Ibishyimbo bigufi bisarurwa hakoreshejwe amaboko, baranduza cyangwa bakata igiti cy’igishyimbo, hanyuma bakareka kikuma mbere y’uko gihurwa (hifashishijwe uburyo bw’amaboko cyangwa imashini zabugenewe mu gusarura no guhura imyaka).
Gusarura n’amaboko
Gusarura ibishyimbo n’amaboko, urabirandura ukabyanika ku zuba.
Iryo sarurwa rikorwa mu gitondo kare, kuko ubuhehere bwa nijoro butuma imitanyu itiyasa ngo intete zitakare.
Mu bihugu bimwe,mbere yo gusarura ibishyimbo babanza kubitera umu#. Uko kubitera umu bikorwa hagamijwe kubyumisha vuba bityo bigatuma uburumbarare bwabyo bugabanuka bikanihu#sha igikorwa cyo kubihura.
Gusarura ukoresheje amamashini
Gusarura ibishyimbo hakoreshejwe amamashini biboneka cyane mu bihugu byateye imbere, bikorwa cyane cyane hakoreshwa imashini kabuhariwe zisarura zigahita zinahura ingano baba bahinduyeho gato.
Izo mashini zifite ubushobozi bwo gusarura hegitari imwemu gihe cy’isaha (0.9-1.1 h/ha). Zimwe mu ngorane zigira ni uko zikenera gukorera mu mirima minini cyane, irambuye,itarimo ibyatsi, ihinzemo ibishyimbo bigufi bishinguye kandi byereye rimwe neza.
Nyuma yo guhurwa, usanga ibishyimbo bibonetse birimo imyandamyinshi n’ubuhehere bugera kuri 20%.Mbere yo kubihunika, ni ngombwa kugabanya iyo myanda n’ubwo buhehere (taux d’humidité), wanika ku buryo busanzwe cyangwa ukoresheje imashini kugeza nibura ku gipimo cya
14% cy’ubuhehere.
Abacuruzi bakunda kubihunikamumifukamuri za hangar zagenewe guhunika. Ubusanzwe, ibishyimbo iyo bimaze gusarurwa biragurishwa ibindi bikabikwa.
Gutwara umusaruro
Imitanyu yashyizwe mu mifuka cyangwa mu bitebo yikorerwa ku mutwe cyangwa ku binyabiziga ikagezwa mu rugo cyangwa ahandi hateguwe. Na none kimwe n’imitanyu, ibitsinsi by’ibishyimbo byaranduwe cyangwa byatemwe birahambirwa bikikorerwa bikajyanwa kwanikwa mu rugo cyangwa ahandi habigenewe.
Icyitonderwa
Muri iki gikorwa hakunze kuboneka igihombo cy’umusaruro gituruka ku inyanyagira ry’umusaruro mu nzira no mu gihe cyose uvanwa ahantu hamwe ujyanwa ahandi.
Kumisha umusaruro w’ibishyimbo
Kumisha umusaruro w’ibishyimbo bikorwa mu birundo: nyuma yo kubirandura, babishyira ku zuba mu murima babihambiriyemo uturundo duto duto.
Guhura no kwanika
Guhura ibishyimbo bikorwa n’amaboko babikubita ibibando ku mbuga ikomeye kandi isukuye.
Kwanika bikorwa basanza ibishyimbo ku mbuga yabugenewe, aho biba biri ku mbuga mu muyaga n’izuba bikahamara iminsi 10 kugeza kuri 15.
Icyitonderwa
Muri icyo gihe ni byiza kubisanza kenshi kugira ngo byume mu rugero rumwe. Ugomba kandi kwirinda kubisanza kugeza nimugoroba kugira ngo bidahura n’ubukonje.
Uretse uburyo bwo kubyanika ku mbuga, ushobora no kubyanika ukoresheje uburyo bw’imirasire y’izuba.
Gutoranya no gusukura umusaruro
Itoranya rikorwa hagamijwe gukuramo impeke ntoya zangiritse (intaganya). Iki gikorwa kirangwa no kugosora umusaruro hakoreshejwe ibikoresho bya gakondo (urutaro, inkoko, …) cyangwa imashini zabugenewe zigosora ibinyampeke cyangwa ibinyamisogwe.
Iki gikorwa gikorerwa ahantu hazira ibyonnyi, ni ukuvuga hatagera amatungo yo mu rugo cyangwa ibindi byonnyi (imbeba, …).
Guhunika umusaruro
Umusaruro w’ibishyimbo umaze gukurwamo imyanda yose ushyirwa mu mifuka igaterekwa ahantu hizewe hatagera ibyonnyi (imbeba).
- Ibishyimbo bigomba guhunikwa ahantu hari umwuka, humutse, kandi hatagera ibyonnyi ;
- Igipimo cy’amazi mu ntete mu turere dushyuha kigomba kuba kingana na 15,0% ;
- Ubwinshi bw’ibihunikwa hakurikijwe aho bihunikwa bugomba kungana na 1,3 m3/ T ;
- Ibikoresho bikoreshwa mu ihunika ni :
- UmutiwitwaMalathio 2%/ 100g ku biro 100 by’ibishyimbo;
- Umutiw’Actellic 2%/ 100g mu biro 100 by’ibishyimbo;
- Umuti wa Super grain Dust 0,1%/ 50g mu biro 90 by’ibishyimbo.
Guhindura umusaruro
Umusaruro w’ibishyimbo ushobora gukoreshwa ukimara gusarurwa ari mubisi (imiteja, ibitonore, …), wumye (impeke) cyangwa umaze gutunganywa (ifu).
Kubika umusaruro uhinduye
Iki gikorwa cyo kijyana ahanini n’uhindura umusaruro; bitewe n’uburyo awuhindura ndetse n’uburyo azawucuruza.
Aha bashobora kuwubika ku buryo bunyuranye:
- Niba ibishyimbo ari imiteja, bishobora kubikwa mu mashashi agashyirwa mu makarito ;
- Niba ibishyimbo byumye, bibikwamumifuka,mu bitebose, maze bigashyirwa ahantu hizewe hatagera ibyonnyi (amatungo, imbeba) ;
- Niba ibishyimbo bihinduwemo ifu, bishobora kubikwa mu mashashi cyangwa mu mifuka.
Gucuruza umusaruro
Amashyirahamwe cyangwa abahinzi bikorera ku giti cyabo bashobora gucuruza umusaruro wabo ku buryo bunyuranye :
Kugirana amasezerano n’amasoko akomeye nko kugemurira ibigo binini nka za Gereza, ibigo by’amashuri, PAM n’ibindi…
Iyi mfashanyigisho tuyikesha Umushinga
PASNVA ukorera muri MINAGRI

Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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