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UBUHINZI BW’IMITEJA Y’IBISHYIMBO


INTANGIRIRO
Ubuhinzi bw’imiteja y’ibishyimbo ni ubuhinzi bushobora kwitabirwa na buri wese kuko imirimo yabwo yoroshye.
Imiteja y’ibishyimbo ikomoka mu majyepho no bice byo hagati muri Amerika. Yazanywe muri afurika n’abanyaburayi bazanwaga no gukora imirimo itandukanye.
Imiteja y’ibishyimbo ni igihingwa kiri mu muryango w’ibinyamisogogwe.
Aho imitejay’ibishyimboikunda
Imiteja y’ibishyimbo ishobora guhingwa mu Rwanda hose. Ariko aho ikunda cyane ni ahari imiterere ikurikira:

  • Ubushyuhe buri hagati ya dogere 20 kugeza kuri 25
  • ubutumburuke buri hagati ya metero 1000 kugeza kuri metero 2100
  • Imvura igwa ku gipimo kiri hagati ya mirimetero 900 na mirimetero 1200 Ubutaka Imiteja y’ibishyimbo ihingwa mu butaka butarimo amazi menshi kandi bufite ifumbire y’imborera ihagije n’ubusharire bw’ubutaka buri hagati ya 6.5 - 7.5 Amoko y’Imiteja y’Ibishyimbo Hari amako menshi y’imiteja y’ibishyimbo:
  • Imiteja irandaranda
  • Imiteja migufi Ariko amoko akenerwa ku masoko mpuzamahanga ni aya akurikira: monel, vernadon, gloria, claudia supper monel, espadia, morgan. Irandaranda hari nka Kentucky wonder. Ikigerocy’imbutobatera Iyo utera ibishyimbo by’imiteja ukenera imbuto ingana n’ibiro 50 kugeza ku biro 60 kuri hegitari Imwe. Ku miteja yera irandaranda hakenerwa ibiro 25 kugeza kuri 30 kuri hegitare imwe. Igihecyoguteraimitejay’ibishyimbo Igihe ufite uburyo bwo kuvomerera imyaka ushobora gutera imiteja y’ibishyimbo buri gihe cyose mu mwaka. Mu gihe cy’ihinga gisanzwe imiteja y’ibishyimbo ishobora guterwa; ariko mu gihe cy’imvura nyinshi ukirinda kuyitera mu gishanga kuko itihanganira imvura nyinshi.
Ingerozikurizwamubuhinzibw’imiteja
  • Hagati y’umurongo n’undi hajya centimetero 60 kugeza 70 cm
  • Haterwa imbuto imwe mu mwobo ufite ubujyakuzimu bwa cm 30
  • Hagati y’imbuto n’indi hajya centimetero 5 kugeza ku 10
  • Umutabo ugomba kuba ufite metero 1.5 Inganoy’ifumbireikenerwa Imiteja y’ibishyimbo ikenera ifumbire y’imborera iboze neza ingana na toni icumi kuri hegitare imwe (10/ha).Iyo ifumbire iterwa ivangwa n’ubutaka neza mbere yo gutera. Mu gihe k’itera ry’imbuto hakenerwa kandi ifumbire mvaruganda ingana n’ibiro 200 bya DAP kuri hegitare imwe, ikavangwa neza n’ubutaka mbere yo gushyira imbuto mu butaka. Igihe ibishyimbo by’imiteja bitangiye kuzana amababi ya mbere hakoreshwa ifumbire ya CAN ingana n’ibiro 100 kuri hegitare imwe, ikaba kandi yatangira gukoreshwa igihe ibishyimbo by’imiteja bitangiye kuzana ururabo. Gukenuraigihingwacy’imiteja. Imiteja y’ibishyimbo ibagarwa bwa mbere nyuma y’ibyumweru 2 kugeza kuri 3 itewe. Mu kubagara witondera guhungabanya imizi y’igihingwa. Kubagara bwa kabiri bishobora gukorwa nyuma y’ibindi by’umweru 2 kugeza kuri 3, ibagarwa rya mbere ribaye. Wirinda kubagara igihe imiteja y’ibishyimbo itangiye kuzana indabyo. Igihe ufite imirima minini ugamije gukora ubuhinzi bubyara inyungu, igihe imirima ifite urwiri rwinshi ushobora gukoresha imiti ya herbicides ku buryo bukurikira:
  • Lasso 4 EC (alahlor) : litiro 3 z’umuti zivangwa muri litiro 400 z’amazi bigakoreshwa kuri hegitari imwe.
  • Stamp (Pendimethalin) : litiro 2.5 z’umuti zivangwa muri litiro 400 z’amazi kuri hegitari imwe. Igihe hari urwiri rukabije ushobora gukoresha Basagram(bentazon) hakoreshwa litiro 2.5kugeza kuri 3 kuri hegitari imwe.
IminsiImitejay’ibishyimboisarurirwaho
Imiteja y’ibishyimbo itangira gusarurwa hagati y’iminsi 42 n’iminsi 56 igakomeza gusarurwa kugeza hagati y’ukwezi kumwe n’igice kugeza ku mezi abiri.
Umurumbuko
Iyo imiteja y’ibishyimbo yitaweho neza ishobora gutanga umusaruro ungana na toni 4 kugeza kuri 8 kuri hegitari imwe.
Ukoumusarurowitabwaho
Gusarura imiteja y’ibishyimbo bikorwa mu gihe hatari imvura nyinshi, iyo usarura imiteja ishyirwa mu gikoresho cya pulasitike cyumutse neza.
Abasarura bagomba kuba bafite isuku ku myambaro ndetse no ku mubiri, mu gihe biyemeje gukora ubuhinzi bubyara inyungu.
Iyo basarura imiteja y’ibishyimbo batoranya imeze neza idakomeretse, itarariwe n’udusimba, ifite umubyimba ugororotse utigonzagonze wa mm 6 kugeza kuri mm 9; n’uburebure bwa cm10.
Uko babika Imitejay’Ibishyimbo
Iyo wifuza kohereza Imiteja y’ibishyimbo kw’ isoko mpuzamahanga ukurikiza ibyavuzwe haruguru byose. Mu kuyibika bayishyira mu makarito y’ibiro 3 cyangwa mu bikoresho bya pulasitike bipima kuva ku magarama 250; 500 kugeza ku kiro kimwe. Ibikwa ahantu hari ubukonje buri hagati ya dogeri 7 kugeza ku 8 n’ubuhehere bwa 95% kugeza kuri 100% mu gihe kingana n’icyumweru kugeza ku byumweru 2.
Indwaran’IBYONNYI
a) Akaribata
Ikiyitera: Colletotrichum lindemuthianum(agahumyo)
Aho ifata: imisogwe, amababi, imbuto n’igihimba
Ibimenyetso : Ku mababi hagaragara amabara maremare asa n’umutuku n’amabara y’uruziga asa n’ikigina bivanze n’ikijuju, ku mpande hatukura (ku misogwe)
Kuyirwanya :
  • gutera amoko yihanganira indwara
  • gutera imbuto itarwaye (yavuye ku misogwe itarwaye)
  • gusimburanya ibihingwa mu murima
  • guhungira imbuto mbere yo kuyitera hakoreshejwe Bénomyl g 2 mu kilo kimwe cy’imbuto b) Ubuhunduguru bwirabura Irindi zina: Aphis fabae Aho ifata: igice cyose cyo hejuru Ibimenyetso : ibishyimbo by’imiteja byafashwe bikura nabi, amababi agahinduka umuhondo. Imiteja ishobora no kuba itwikiriwe n’ibintu bifata nk’ubujeni ubuhunduguru bukora, agahumyo kirabura gakuriramo. Kuyirwanya :
  • guhinga kijyambere ku buryo imiteja ikura neza
  • gutera Diméthoate1/2L z’umuti kuri hegitari imwe 0.25 litiro kuri hegitari imwe cyangwa Rogor ugakoresha 0.5 litiro kuri
hegitari imwe ushobora no gukoresha Dursban 48%, 1.5 bya litiro kuri hegitari imwe.
c) Bagiteriyoze:
indwara y’ibidomo by’uruziga:
Ikiyitera: Bagiteri yitwa Pseudomonas Syringae p.v phaseolicola
Aho ifata: Amababi, ku misogwe no ku duti
Ibimenyetso: ku mababi haza utudomo duto tw’umuhondo tuzengurutswe n’uruziga rweruruka rufite cm1 y’umurambararo. Amababi akiri mato aba mato cyane, agata isura yayo akaba kandi umuhondo ubengerana rimwe na rimwe. Ku misogwe hazaho ibidomo by’icyatsi kibisi gikabije, kimeze nk’igisize amavuta, hamwe hagira ibara ry’ikijuju gitukura.Utwo tudomo tuba ari uruziga cyangwa tugakurikira imitsi y’ikibabi.
Kuyirwanya :
  • gukoresha imbuto zitarwaye n’izihanganira iyo ndwara
  • gushyira mu ngarani ibishogoshogo byarwaye bigatabwa
  • gusimburanya neza ibihingwa
  • gutera umuti wa dacobre g 140 muli litiro 10 z’amazi biterwa kuri ari 1 cyangwa 1.5 Kirabiranya y’Ibishyimbo Ikiyitera: Xanthomonas phaseoli Aho ifata : ku mababi, ku misogwe noku duti Ibimenyetso :- munsi y’amababi hazaho utubara duto tubonerana, tutangana, ariko cyane cyane ku mpande z’amababi.hagati muri ayo mabara ari mu mababi hagati haruma,hagakikizwa n’umuhondo ugaragara cyane. Amababi yafashwe arahunguka.Ku misogwe no ku duti hazaho amabara y’ikigina atangana Kuyirwanya :-
  • gutera imbuto zitarwaye n’izihanganira iyo ndwara
  • gusimburanya ibihingwa neza mu murima kurandura ibyafashwe no kubitwikira mu mwobo gutera umuti wa Dacobre garama imwe muri litiro 10 z’amazi ugakoreshwa kuri ari imwe cyangwa imwe n’igice.
Byateguwe na :
Rwanda Horticulture Development Authority (RHODA)
P.O.BOX : 621 Kigali / Tél : 0252585249
Website : www.rhoda.gov.rw
Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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