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Ubuhinzi bw’Imizabibu


I. Ahaberanye n’ubuhinzi bw’imizabibu(Vigne)
 Ubuhinzi bw’Imizabibu
Imizabibu ikunda ikirere gishyuha aho mugihe cy’impeshyi ubushyuhe buba ari bw’inshi kandi mugihe cy’imvura hakaba ubukonje buringaniye . Kugirango imizabibu ibashe gutanga umusaruro cyangwa ibe yasarurwa amahundo yayo asaba ubushyuhe kugirango abashe kwera asarurwe, ubushyuhe buri hagati ya (15 - 40°C) aho izuba riba riva kuburyo buhagije. Mugihe cy’ubukonje nkuko twabibonye imizabibu ntabwo igubwa neza kuko ishobora gufatwa n’indwara murizo twavugamo nka: (Botrytis, Oïdium, Mildiou). Imizabibu ibasha kwihanganira amoko menshi y’ubutaka akarusho igakunda ubutaka bwiganjemo ibumba n’imborera y’ibimera byahashangukiye. Ubusharire bw’ubutaka bugomba kuba hagati ya 6,5 à 7,5 (pH de 6,5 à 7,5). Ikenera amazi ku cyigero cya mirimetoro 400 na 500. Mu gihe cyo kuzana ururabyo imizabibu ikunda amazi .

II. Imikurire n’ubuzima bw’imizabibu
Mu itumba, umuzabibu utakaza amababi yawo ukiberaho ntamababi menshi agaragara k’uruti. Izamuka ry’ubushyuhe ni ukuvuga mukwezi kwakabiri cyangwa kwa gatatu amababi atangira kumera kandi ugatangira kugaragaza amashami ashibuka byihuse k’uruti rwawo . Nyuma y’ukwezi n’igice kugeza ku mezi abiri uzabona umuzabibu ugaragaza indabo ushaka kwera nkuko twabibonye haruguru umuzabibu ukunda ubushyuhe .

Bitewe n’ubwoko bw’umuzabibu wahisemo guhinga bikagendana nanone n’imiterere y’ikirere cy’aho uhinze umuzabibu ushobora kubaho imyaka irenga icumi
III. Uko bahinga imizabibu
1. Imirimo ijyanye no gufata neza imizabibu
Muri rusange , Umuzabibu ugomba gukorerwa isuku cyangwa kurwanyamo ibyatsi bibi inshuro eshatu mu mwaka: Mutarama-Gashyantare igihe uzana amababi , Mata –Gicurasi , mbere gato yo kurabya, Kamena,. Impamvu nyamukuru yo kuwukorera ni ukurwanya ibyatsi bibi bishobora kuba byameze aho uhinze ikindi n’ukugirango ubone ubuhumekero . Aha ushobora birashoboka gukoresha imiti irwanya ibyatsi bibi bimera mu murima iyo ubifitiye ubushobozi. Amoko y’imiti ivugwa ni :
(1) les herbicides de pré-émergence (Simazine, Atrazine, Diuron);
(2) les herbicides de contact (colorants nitrés, Diquat, Paraquat);
(3) les herbicides systémiques (2,4 D, Dalapon, Aminotriazole, Round up).
Ikindi ushobora gukorera umuzabibu ni ukuwusasira nkuko bikorwa kuri kawa . Ibyiza byo kuwusasira ni:
(1) Gusubiza umuzabibu intunga bihingwa zagabanijwe no kuwusarura, Gutuma uruti rukomera kandi rukazana amababi (2) Kongera intunga bihingwa mubutaka no kurindako zabamo nkeya.
Hagati y’umurongo n’undi intera yagombye kuba metero imwe na santimetero 80 –kugeza kuri metero 2 na sentimetero 30 hagati y’umuzabibu n’undi intera ni 0.90 m kugera kuri 1.10 m
2. Kuvomerera
Imirimo ijyanye no kuvomerera imizabibu igomba guhoraho kugirango ubuhehere bw’ubutaka butagabanuka bityo umusaruro ukaba mucye .
IV. Gusarura no guhunika umusaruro
Imizabibu iribwa kumeza nka desserts igomba gusarurwa ihishije neza kandi igifite amazi yayo impumuro nayo iri mubituma ikundwa cyane ikaba itakirengagizwa . Gusarura imizabibu bikorwa wifashishije amaboko yawe ukata amahundo cyangwa ukoresheje utumashini twabigenewe.
Twifashishije :IAV Hassan II, Agronomie-département d’horticulture, unité de Rabat, Ahmed Skiredj; Walali D.M.L. et Hassan El Attir
Igitabo cya
M. Ahmed SKIREDJ
• Doctorat d’Etat Es. Sc. biologie appliquée: Mai 1991.
• Grade : professeur PES « A » de Mai 1995 à Mai 2000.
• Grade : professeur PES « B » depuis Mai 2000.

Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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