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Uburyo bwiza bwo kurwanya ibyonnyi by’insina


 Uburyo bwiza bwo kurwanya ibyonnyi by’insina Udukoko dukunze kwibasira insina ziboneka mu Rwanda n’ibivumvuri n’amashanya. Ikintu cya mbere gishobora gukorwa mu kurwanya ibivumvuri ni ugutera imibyare mizima itarangijwe n’ibivumvuri. Ibyo bigerwaho binyuze mu guhata inguri mu buryo bwitondewe hagamijwe kureba ko harimo imyobo ndetse no kuvanamo ibimenyetso byose by’aho ikivumvuri cyangije. Niba inguri ifite imyobo myinshi, icyo gihe ntiba igomba guterwa. Inguri imaze guhatwa iterwa mu gihe cy’iminsi itarenze itanu.
Abahanga mu by’iyamamaza buhinzi basobanura ko insina zikenera Azote (N) na Potasiyumu (K) nyinshi, zigakenera Fosifore (P), Manyeziyumu (Mg) na Kaliziyumu (Ca) nke. Azote ngo ituma insina muri rusange ikura kandi igakomeza kugira amakoma y’icyatsi kibisi akagira n’ubuzima bwiza ku buryo ashobora gukurura imirasire y’izuba myinshi kugira ngo insina izatange igitoki kinini kurushaho. Fosifore ifasha insina kugira imizi ikomeye kandi ifite ubuzima bwiza ku buryo ishobora gukogota amazi n’ibitunga insina byinshi mu butaka. Potasiyumu ifasha mu bijyanye no kuvana ibitunga insina n’amazi mu butaka ikabijyana ikabigeza mu makoma no mu gitoki. Naho Manyeziyumu ifasha amakoma gukoresha imirasire y’izuba aba yakuruye kugira ngo akore ibitunga igihingwa.

Iyo ubutaka bukennye kuri ibyo bitunga ibimera, insina zigaragaza ibimenyetso akenshi bikunze kwitiranywa n’iby’indwara. Ibimenyetso bigaragaza ibura rya N, K, P na Mg birimo Azote (N). Ibimenyetso by’ibura rya Azote byigaragaza vuba kandi bigahita bikwira ku makoma yose. Ibyo bimenyetso ni Amakoma aba mato cyane kandi akaba icyatsi cyerurutse, Amakoma aba make ku nsina, intera iri hagati y’ikoma n’irindi iragabanuka ugasanga insina ifite amakoma acucitse cyane, insina ikura nabi ikagira umutumba unanutse cyane, ibitoki biba bito.

Ibimenyetso by’ibura rya Potasiyumu (K) bigaragara insina igeze igihe cyo kwana. Bikubiyemo kugaragara ku makoma amabara y’umuhondo, amakoma agasaza imburagihe, akuma, umugongo w’ayo makoma akenshi urigonda cyangwa ukavunikira muri bibiri bya gatatu by’uburebure bw’ikoma maze rikareba hazi, insina igira amakoma mato, itinda kwana ndetse ibitoki bikaba bito cyane.
Naho kubirebana n’ibimenyetso by’ibura rya Fosifore ntibikunze kugaragara mu murima. Icyakora bikubiyemo insina ikura nabi inanutse kandi ntigira imizi ihagije , ku makoma nk’ane cyangwa atanu makuru, usanga ku mpande yaratakaje ibara ryayo. Hanyuma hazaho amabara y’ibihogo amakoma akagenda abora ku mpande, amakoma yafashwe arahinyarara kandi akavunika, amakoma akiri mato aba afitemo ibara rijya kuba ubururu.

Ibimenyetso bigaragaza ibura rya Manyeziyumu mu butaka birimo amakoma makuru agira ibara ry’umuhondo ku mpande rikagendarigana ku mugongo w’ikoma, ibara ry’icyatsi kibisi rigasigara hafi y’umugongo w’ikoma gusa, ikoma rirushaho kuba umuhondo iyo ryitegeye izuba, aho amakoma atereye ku bivovo hazaho amabara ajya kuba isine, ibivovo byomoka ku mutumba.

Ingamba zo kubungabunga ubutaka n’amazi

Mu buhinzi bw’urutoki, ni ngombwa gufata ingamba zo kubungabunga ubutaka n’amazi. Ni ngombwa kurwanya isuri no kongera amazi acengera mu butaka butewemo urutoki. Uburyo bwo kubungabunga ubutaka n’amazi bukunze gukoreshwa, ni ubwo gucukura imiringoti, ibyobo byo gufata amazi no gukora ibirundo by’ibyatsi.

Imiringoti icukurwa mu rutoki ruhinze ahantu hahanamye kugira ngo ubutaka budatwarwa n’isuri. Na none, ituma amazi acengera mu butaka yiyongera. Iyo miringoti impamvu iba ifite santimetero 60 z’ubujyakuzimu na santimetero 60 z’ubugari, igacukurwa ku musozo w’umurima. Rimwe na rimwe, kuri iyo miringoti hashobora guterwaho ibyatsi nk’urubingo, vetiveri cyangwa ibiti bitangiza imyaka, bigaterwa haruguru y’imiringoti kugira ngo bifate ubutaka. Ibyo byatsi n’ibyo biti biba bishobora gutemwa bikagaburirwa amatungo, bigasisira urutoki cyangwa bikubakishwa.
Ibisigara iyo isarura rirangiye, ibyatsi bibi n’ibindi bimera babishyira ku murongo bigakora ikirundo ku musozi. Bituma ubutaka budatwarwa n’isuri. Ibyo byatsi bituma amazi acengera mu butaka yiyongera kandi iyo bimaze kubora bifumbira insina ziri hafi yabyo.

Amazi y’imvura amanuka ku musozi ayoberezwa mu byobo byo gufata amazi. Ibyo byobo bifata amazi amanuka ku musozi hafi ya yose kandi bituma amazi acengera mu butaka yiyongera. Na none ibyo byobo bituma ubutaka budatwarwa n’isuri.

Ibivumvuri byangiza insina (Cosmopolites sordidus)

Ikivumvuri gikuru gitera amagi hafi y’inguri y’insina cyangwa mu bisigazwa by’insina ahari ubuhehere. Iyo ayo magi amaze guturaga, ibishobobwa bivuyemo bicukura imyobo mu nguri no mu mutumba ariko bigenda byangiza. Ibyo bishorobwa birakura bikavamo ibivumvuri. Bifata iminsi hagati ya 30 na 40 kugira ngo igi riturage rizagere ubwo rivamo ikivumvuri gikuru. Ikivumvuri gikuri cy’ikigore gitera amagi 96 ku munsi kandi gishobora kumara imyaka iri hagati 3 n’ 4. Bityo rero, ibivumvuri bitarwanyijwe bishobora kwangiza urutoki cyane.
Ibimenyetso bikunze kugaragara biterwa n’ibivumvuri birimo kubangamira insina ntizamure neza amazi n’ibiyitunga, insina ikura nabi kandi ikananuka, insina itinda kwana, umusaruro uragabanuka, rimwe na rimwe insina irangirika burundu. Mu nsina zazonzwe cyane n’ibivumvuri, umutumba uvunikira aho ufataniye n’inguri.

Uko barwanya ibivumvuri byangiza insina, ikintu cya mbere gishobora gukorwa mu kurwanya ibivumvuri ni ugutera imibyare mizima itarangijwe n’ibivumvuri. Ibyo bigerwaho binyuze mu guhata inguri byitondewe kugira ngo umuhinzi arebe niba irimo imyobo kandi avanemo ibimenyetso byose by’aho ikivumvuri cyangije. Niba inguri ifite imyobo myinshi, icyo gihe ntiba igomba guterwa. Inguri imaze guhatwa iterwa mu gihe cy’iminsi itarenze itanu. Ibivumvuri by’insina bishobora na none kurwanywa hakoreshejwe uburyo busanzwe, nko kugirira isuku urutoki ( gushangurura, gutemagura imitumba y’insina zisaruwe no kuyisanza, gucoca inguri kugira ngo zume) no gutega ibivumvuri hakoreshejwe imitumba y’insina zasaruwe.

Imitego yatezwe itegurwa nyuma y’amasaha 24, umuhinzi akavanamo ibivumvuri biri mu mitego akajya kubitwika. Umutego awusubizaho kandi ashobora kuwukoresha inshuro eshatu gusa. Nyuma y’iminsi itatu, ahindura umutego (umutumba mushya).

Amashanya (Nematodes)

Amashanya ni ubwoko bw’ibyonnyi bitagaragarira amaso, biba mu butaka, mu mizi n’inguri z’insina. Arya imizi agatuma yangirika. Ubwoko bw’amashanya bwangiza cyane bwitwa Rhodopholus similis bukunze kuboneka mu kibaya cya Rusizi mu Bugarama.
Akenshi ibimenyetso by’amashanya byitiranywa n’ibimenyetso byo kubura ifumbire n’amazi. Ibyo bimenyetso bikunze kuba imizi yangirika ntishobore kuzamura amazi n’ibitunga insina, insina ikura nabi igahinyagara, insina itinda kwana, igira igitoki gito, insina zirandukana n’imizi n’iyo hatari ibibazo by’umuyaga.

Ikimenyetso kigaragarira buri wese cy’ukuntu amashanya yangiza, ni uko insina iranduka yose uko yakabaye, cyane cyane izifite ibitoki.

Uburyo bwiza bwo kurwanya amashanya ni ugutera imibyare mizima kandi igaterwa mu murima muzima itagaragayemo ibyonnyi. Uburyo bwo kubona imibyare mizima ibanza guhatwa kugira ngo umuhinzi avaneho imizi n’ibitaka hanyuma akayinika mu mazi ashyushye kugira ngo yice amashanya n’amagi yayo yose. Iyo urutoki rwafashwe n’ubwoko bw’amashanya bwangiza cyane, ruba rugomba kurandurwa hanyuma uwo murima ugahingwamo indi myaka, nk’imyumbati n’ibijumba mu gihe cy’imyaka ibiri, kuko byo bitibasirwa n’amashanya y’insina. Hanyuma, uwo murima ushobora kongera guterwamo.

imvaho nshya

Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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