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Ubworozi bw’inkoko: Indwara z’inkoko zingenzi

Indwara igenda imenyekana bitewe n’ibinyabuzima byayo, nka virusi, bacteria, parasites, ibihumyo n’ingaruka zabyo, urugero.
Nko kurya mukavuyo nkuko twabibonye haruguru. Akenshi, indwara z’ingenzi mu nkoko tuzigabanyamo ibyiciro bibiri tugendeye m’ubukana n’umumaro ahantu,-tugendeye kumusaruro muto. Ibiziranga bitandukanye nk’ibimenyetso byazo mu kuzirwara n’uburyo bwo kuzivura( kuzirinda cyangwa kuzigenzura) n’igihe kiza zikunze kugaragara.
Umumaro w’indwara uwurebera k’uburyo zica n’ingaruka k’umusaruro kandi bigenda bihinduka bitewe n’ahantu n’igihe.
Urukomatane rw’indwara.
Indwara zidakaze zishobora kwifatanya nizindi ndwara zikongera ingaruka zigira ku nyoni. Uru rukomatane urugero  indwara ya e.coli, kubura ibiryo no kugira udukoko mo imbere mu mubiri. Zimwe mu ndwara ntizikunze kwica inyoni, ariko zigira ingaruka igaragara k’ubudahangarwa bw’inyoni, ibyo bigatuma inyoni ishobora gufatwa byoroshye n’izindi ndwara.
Indwara z’ingenzi bisobanura indwara muri rusange zica cyane( hejuru ya 30 ku ijana y’amatungo yose), zikanduzanya cyane no kuzivura bikagora. Indwara zigereranyije bisobanura muri rusange impuzandengo yo gupfa mu ma tungo iri hagati ya 10 kugeza kuri 30 ku ijana ry’ubushyo,no cyanga kuzivura birakomeye.  Izinenzi gahoro, bisobanura izitari rusange, zica nkeya kandi kuzivura byoroshye.
▼▼▼indwara ya newcastle
Ino ndwara ikunze kuboneka mu gihe cy’izuba, kandi akenshi iboneka mu mishwi, ariko na none no mu nkoko zikuze. Impfu zohejuru mu bushyo bw’inkoko, akenshi hagati ya 30 % na 80 % bw’inkoko zirapfa iyo ino ndwara iteye. Zishobora kugaragaza guhumeka bikabije, amatotori asa n’icyatsi kandi rimwe na rimwe guhindwa amaraso.
Zishobora kugaragaza ibimenyetso byo gucika intege, kutinyeganyeza no gupfa bitunguranye, kandi bino bimenyetso bishobora kuzira icyarimwe. Ino ndwara ni virusi, ku bwiyo mpamvu ntivurwa , ariko ishobora kwirindwa bakoresheje gukingira inkoko zose harimo imishwi imazi nibura ibyumweru bibiri ivutse
▼▼▼ ibicurane by’ibiguruka (avian influenza (ai))
 ino ndwara tuyisanga ubundi mu mu bishuhe no mu nyoni ziba mu mazi,kandi ishobora gukwirakwira nk’indwara yandura kandi mbi cyane ku mishwi. Urupfu rwo hejuru mu bushyo, igisunzu cy’ubururu kibyimbye…...  Ino ndwara ikwirakwira inyuze mu biryo byanduye n’amazi biri mu kibase. Ino ndwara ni agakoko ka virusi, ku bwiyo mpamvu nta muti. Kuyirinda byiza ni ukugira isuku nziza no kwica inyoni zanduye. Ibicurane by’ibiguruka kugeza ubu ntibyirindwa bakoresheje gukingira ibiguruka. Guhitamo no gutwika inyoni zose mu bushyo n’isuku nziza yaho inkoko ziba bigomba kwitwabwagaho nyuma yuko indwara itera. Hamagara buri gihe umuganga w’amatungo, igihe ucyeka ko hashobora kuba ino ndwara yateye. Ntukarye inyoni zanduye.
▼▼▼ fowl pox
Ino ndwara iboneka cyane mu nkuko zikiri nto, kandi na none no mu nkuru, yigaragaza nk’utubyimba duto ku bice byo kuruhande, ku gisunzu no mu maso y’inkoko. Ubushyuhe bwo hejuru mu mubiri, kuruha bikurikirwa n’urupfu. Ino ndwara iboneka cyane mugihe cy’izuba, ariko ishobora kumara umwaka wose. Ino ndwara ni agakoko ka virusi, ku bwiyo mpamvu nta muti. Urukingo ruraboneka kandi rufite ingufu.
e. Coli infection
 ino ndwara iboneka cyane mu mishwi icyiva mu magi, igatera ubwandu mu gace k’igifu.
Ibimenyetso mu nkoko zishaje: ibibazo mu guhumeka cyangwa agakoko mu gice kigenewe amagi no guhagarika gutera amagi. Uburyo bwiza bwo kuyirinda ni ukongera isuku y’amagi avamo imishwi n’aho ziterera. Kuvura inkoko zirwaye birashoboka ukoresheke amantibiyotike.
▼▼▼korera y’ibiguruka (pasteurellosis)
Ino ndwara ishobora kubaho mu rugero rw’inkoko zose. Ibimenyetso ni  uguhitwa gukomeye, ibimenyetso byo guhumeka, gutakakaza ingufu zo kurya, igisunzu cy’ubururu no ku mpande. Ishobora kwigaragaza nk’indwara ihoraho cyangwa ihita ihitana inkoko. Yandurwa inyuze mu biryo byanduye n’amazi. Nta muti. Uburyo bwiza bwo kuyirinda ni isuku nziza no gukingira. Ica unatwike ibiguruka byanduye. Urukingo burigihe ruraboneka
▼▼ indwara ya pullorum
Ino ndwara iboneka cyane mu nkoko zikirinto. Inkoko zigenda biziruhije, zigaragaza inda nini kandi zigatera mababa biruhije. Amatotori yazo aba ari amazi kandi ahinduka umweru. Ntabwo ivurwa. Kuyirinda ni isuku nziza. Niba uburwaye bubaye, tandukanya cyangwa wice kandi unatwike izirwaye. Ino ndwara ijya ku nkoko ivuye ku majyi  y’inkoko zanduye, zitagaragaza ibimenyetso byuko zirwaye.
▼▼indwara y’ibiguruka ya tifoyide ( fowl typhoid)
Ikunze kuboneka mu nkoko zishaje. Ibimenyetso: ubushyuhe bwinshi, kuruha, igisunzu cy’ubururu, urupfu rw’igihutirano. Ntivurwa. Kuyirinda ni ukugira isuku no gushira izirwaye ukwazo ukazica. Ntukagure inkoko z’ahantu utazi ntukifashishe n’amagi y’inkoko zirwaye.

▼▼▼ indwara ya coccidioze( y’ubukoko bw’imbere).
Ino ndwara ishobora kubaho mu rugero rw’inkoko zose, ariko ishobora ukora isuku ihoraho kandi yitondewe yaho inkoko ziba naho zinywera amazi. Ibimenyetso kurwara, umunaniro, kubika umutwi, amababa akizinga, kwituma amaraso. Itera urupfu mu nkoko zikiri ntoya. Iyo zidapfuye, ntabwo zizabyibuha kandi zizatinda gutera. Uko ivurwa: ivurwa na anticoccidiostatics iri mu mazi cyangwa mu biryo. Kuyirinda: nta nkoko nyinshi cyane zigomba gushyirwa hamwe. Irinde gushyira inkoko zifite imyaka itandukanye ahantu hamwe, kuko indwara ishobora kuva kunkuru ijya ku ntoya.
▼▼indwara ya roundworms na tapeworms(y’ubukoko bw’imbere)
Iyi ndwara y’imbere munda ifata inkoko z’imyaka yose ikibanda cyane mukugabanya umusaruro. Utwo dukoko dutera ubuzimama bubi, gutaka ibiro, kugabanaku kw’amagi, no guhitwa amaraso. Kuyivura neza ni ugukoresha antihelmintics mu mazi inshuro imwe cyangwa ebyiri mu mwaka, bikaba byiza cyane kuyiziha mbere ho ibyumweru bibiri ko bayitera urukingo rurwanya kubura intungamubiri. Isuku ihagije ishobora kuyirinda indwara zikomeye.
▼▼indwara y’udukoko dufata inyuma k’umubiri.
Iyi ndwara ifita inkoko z’imyaka iyariyo yose mu gihe icyaricyo cyose, ariko iboneka cyane cyane munzu y’inkoko ibobereye ifite n’isuku mbi. Inyoni ikuze iyo ifashwe birayihungabanya ikanatakaza igihe kinini yifumbase  n’ubwoya buryamye. Inkoko ntoya zishobora gupfa bitewe n’abanzi. Iyo zitavuwe, udukoko,inda,ibirongwe biyitera gutakaza ibiro no kuba yatakaza amababa bitewe n’udukoko tuyinwa amaraso tukanayiruma kuruhu. Inda zishobora kugaragara iruhande rw’amaso n’amazuru. Uturabarwe dushobora kugaragara kunda. Kuyivura: kuyitera cyangwa kuyihanagura n’imiti yica udukoko, ivu n’amavuta. Ivu na puderi ya sulphur bishobora kwifashishwa igihe inkoko zitakarabijwe. Ibyari bishobora kurindwa bashira amababi macye y’itabi avanze n’ivu mu cyari.
indwara ya scaly legs
Iyi ndwara iterwa n’udukoko tw’inyuma turuma kuruhu rwo ku magueu y’inyuma.
Ibimenyetso: amaguru aba afite amagaragamba kuburyo bugaragara n’ibikomere no kuba ishobora kuba ibice byayo bishobora kudakora.
Kuyivura: gushyira amguru yayo muri kerosene, amavuta cyangwa mu miti yica udukoko kugeza igihe amagaragamba aviriyeho.
indwara y’imirire
Ibimenyetso: kutamera neza kw’amagufwa no gutakaza amababa. Inyoni ikagenda biyigoye, isimbuka. Amaguru aba yakaje ishusho yayo. Kubura zimwe muntungamubiri zishobora gutera gutakara kw’amababa. Kuyivura, niba yasuzumiriwe igihe: kuyongerera vitamini n’imyunyu ya calcium, ibyatsi bitohatoshye n’imyanda y’inka. Indwara ziterwa n’imirire zishobora kwirindwa mu gihe inyoni ishobora kubona ibihingwa bisanzwe no kuba zidakunze kwishakira ibyokurya.

Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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