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Uko bahinga urusenda


 Uko bahinga urusenda Urusenda ni ikiribwa cyamamaye ku isi yose. Uretse kuba rubarirwa mu ndyoshyandyo ndetse rufasha mu kongera ubushake buhagije bwo kurya, urusenda rugirira umubiri akamaro gakomeye aho rutuma imyanya imwe n’imwe yo mu kanwa no mu gifu ikora neza ndetse n’igogora ry’ibiryo rikagenda neza.
Bijya binavugwa ko umuntu ufite amibe n’ikibazo cyo mu mara (intestine worms) bamutegeka kurya urusenda. Urusenda kandi rutangirwa n’ubuhamya ko rutera akanyabugabo. Urusenda kandi rukoreshwa no mu kwica udukoko dutandukanye dutera indwara mu bihingwa. Urusenda rushobora kuribwa rukiri rubisi cyangwa rwumye. Rushobora no gukoreshwa nka salade nk’urwo bita sweet pepper (urusenda ruryohera), bashobora ku ruteka cyangwa rugakorwamo ibindi bintu bitandukanye (hot pepper, ketchup, imiti n’ibindi). Umusaruro w’urusenda ku rwego mpuzamahanga, nk’uko imibare yatanzwe na FAO (Ishami ry’umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku biribwa) yerekana ko Ubushinwa bufite umwanya wa mbere ku rwego mpuzamahanga mu guhinga urusenda no kurucuruza.
Bimwe mu bigize urusenda bishobora kugirira umubiri akamaro ni ku magarama 100 y’urusenda agizwe na garama 74 z’amazi, ibitera imbaraga KJ 395, 94 by’umunyungugu wa Kalisiyumu, garama 4.1 za poroteyine, garama 2.3 by’ibinyamavuta, garama 18 za carbohydrate, amagarama 6 y’umunyungugu wa Fibure, amagarama 50 ya Kalisiyumu, 101 y’umunyungugu wa Manyeziyumu na Fosifore, amagarama 2.9 y’umunyungugu wa Feri, amagarama 7.14o za Beta (B), amagarama 0.2 ya Carotene, 0,25 garama za Thiamin, amagarama 20 ya riboflavin na garama 121 za ascorbic acid. Nk’uko bitangazwa n’urubuga Rwanda Horticulture Development Authority (Rhoda) ubu isigaye ibarizwa muri NAEB (National Agriculture Export Board) ngo urusenda rugizwe n’ibyubaka umubiri byinshi. Iyo akaba ariyo mpamvu rukwiye kwitabwaho cyane. Bakomeza bavuga ko amoko y’urusenda ari menshi ariko ku masoko mpuzamahanga hakaba hakunzwe cyane ubwoko bwa California wonder, Yolo wonder, Emirald giant, Bird’s eye.
Imiterere y’urusenda
Urusenda ni igiti gishobora gukura kikaba cyagera kuri metero 2 z’uburebure. Gifite amababi menshi kandi kikaba gishobora kwera kabiri mu mwaka. Urusenda ruri mu bwoko bw’ibinyamisogwe. Ubwoko bw’umusogwe bwigaragaza bukurikije ubwoko bw’urusenda, kuko hari uruba icyatsi, umutuku, umuhondo n’andi mabara atandukanye. Urusenda rwo mu bwoko bwa Chili (Bushari) ni urusenda rwihuta mu mikurire yarwo, indabo zarwo ziba ziri hamwe ari umweru ndetse rukagira imisogwe miremire ireshya na santimetero 2 kugeza kuri 16 rukaba rutukura. Bene urwo rusenda rushobora kuribwa ari icyatsi kibisi cyangwa rwumishijwe.
Kubirebana n’aho urusenda rukunda, ngo rushobora guhingwa mu Rwanda hose ukurikije ubwoko bwarwo n’imiterere y’ikirere. Gusa ngo umuhinzi agomba kwita cyane ku bushyuhe buri hagati ya dogere 15 na 25 ndetse n’ubutumburuke bugera kuri metero 2000. Imvura igomba kuba iri hagati ya milimetero 600 na 900. Urusenda rushobora kwera ku butaka bwose ariko ubwo butaka bugomba kuba butarimo amazi menshi kandi bufite imyunyungugu ya ngombwa. Ibyo bikiyongeraho kuba bukize ku ifumbire y’imborera. Ubusharire (pH) bw’ubutaka bugomba kuba buri hagati ya 5.5 na 6.8.
Ku bijyanye n’ifumbire, urusenda rukenera ifumbire y’imborera, iboze neza ingana na toni 10 kuri hegitari imwe (10T/ha). Ifumbire mvaruganda yo ikoreshwa ku buryo bwa kilogarama 250 kuri hegitari TSP (Triple Super Phosphate) batera iyo urusenda rumaze kugira santimetero 15. Urusenda kandi rukenera ibiro 100 bya kilogarama ya CAN (Calcium Ammonia Nitrate) nyuma y’ukwezi rugakenera ibiro 200 kuri hegitari bya CAN.
Igihe cyo gutera urusenda
Kimwe n’ibindi bihingwa bica mu buhumbikiro, ingemwe z’urusenda zitegurwa muri Kamena. Gutera izo ngemwe bikorwa mu kwezi kwa Nzeri n’Ukwakira. Kubirebana n’uburyo bwo gutubura ingemwe, umuhinzi abanza Kwinaza. Aho yinariza urusenda hagomba gutegurwa neza nk’uko bigomba ku zindi mboga zibanza kunyuzwa mu buhumbikiro.
Mu buhumbikiro urusenda ruterwa kuri santimetero 20 hagati y’umurongo n’undi. Ubuhumbikiro kandi bugomba gutwikirwa kugira ngo burindwe imvura n’izuba. Na none kandi, ubuhumbikiro bushobora gukurwaho ibirindazuba mbere ho icyumweru kimwe ngo imbuto zigemurwe. Ubundi buryo bwo gutubura ingemwe ni ubwo bita Kugemura. Urusenda rugemurwa nibura rumaze kugira amababi 8 kugeza ku 10. Urusenda rugemurwa hashize iminsi iri hagati y’iminsi 30 na 40. Kugemura kandi, hatoranywa ingemwe zimeze neza, zikomeye. Kugemura bikorwa mu gitondo izuba ritarava cyangwa nimugoroba rimaze kurenga.
Uburyo bwa gatatu bwo gutubura ingemwe ni ubujyanye no gutegura umurima. Umurima ugomba gutegurwa neza nta rwiri rubonekamo, uhinze neza kugeza nibura kuri santimetero 30. Uwo murima ushyirwamo ifumbire umuhinzi yitwararitse ingero zifumbire zikwiriye.
Uburyo bukoreshwa mu gutera urusenda
Urusenda ruterwa kuri santimetero 40 hagati y’ngeri n’indi cyangwa hagati y’igiti cy’urusenda n’ikindi. Iyo umuhinzi ateye atanyujije mu buhumbikiro ni santimetero 30 hagati y’ingemwe n’indi. Ruterwa kuri santimetero 60 hagati y’umurongo. Urutanyujijwe mu buhumbikiro ni santimetero 70 hagati y’umurongo n’undi. Mu murima wa hegitari 1, hahingwamo ingemwe ziri hagati y’ibihumbi 50.000 na 80.000.
Ikintu gikwiye kwitonderwa mu gutera urusenda, ngo ni uko rudahingwa hamwe n’ibindi binyamisogwe. Ku birebana n’iminsi rwerera, ngo ubusanzwe nyuma y’iminsi 6 kugeza kuri 21, umumero w’urusenda uba watangiye kugaragara. Nyuma y’iminsi 60 kugeza kuri 90, ururabo narwo ruba rutangiye kuboneka. Imisogwe itangira kuboneka nyuma y’ibyumweru 4 kugeza kuri 5 nyuma y’aho ururabo rubonekeye. Urusenda ruba rweze neza hagati y’amezi 2.5 kugera kuri 3.
Indwara n’ibyonnyi
Urusenda rukunze kwibasirwa n’indwara y’Uruhumbu, iterwa n’agahumyo kitwa Peronospora tabacina. Ibimenyetso by’iyo ndwara ni uko ibibabi bizaho utudomo tujya kuba umukara dutwikiriwe n’uruhumbu rujya kuba umweru. Iyo ndwara ikunda gufata igihingwa kiri mu buhumbikiro. Irwanywa hakoreshejwe umuti witwa Ferban na Zineb. Indi ndwara n’iyitwa Antarakinose, iterwa n’agahumyo kitwa gloeosporium piperatum. Ni indwara ifata ibice byose cyane cyane ahakomeretse. Ibimenyetso biba byerekana ko ahafashwe huma nyuma hakabonekamo utudomo tw’umukara. Nyirabayazana w’iyo ndwara ni igihe hatewe imbuto zakomotse ku gihingwa kirwaye. Kuyirwanya nta kundi uretse guhinduranya ibihingwa mu murima ndetse no gutera imbuto zitarwaye. Ibyo bikiyongeraho gutera umuti nka Zineb, Naban, Ziram na Maneb.
Naho indwara ya Virusi igaragazwa n’ibimenyetso by’ibibabi n’imisogwe y’urusenda bihinduka umuhondo bikazaho utubara tujya kuba icyatsi cyijimye. Kuyirwanya ni uko igihingwa cyafashwe kigomba gukurwa mu bindi, kigatwikwa, kigashyirwa kure y’umurima uhinzwemo urusenda. Naho kurwanya udusimba dufata urusenda ngo ni ugukoresha imiti ya Malathion cyangwa Dimethoate.
Amateka y’urusenda
Bivugwa ko urusenda rwaturutse hagati mu majyepfo y’Amerika. Aho habonekaga ubwoko bugera muri 25. Ubundi muri Mexique niho hari inkomoko y’urusenda ruto rw’umutuku rukunze kuboneka mu gihugu cy’u Rwanda. Urusenda rwageze muri Afurika ruzanywe n’abacuruzi b’abacakara bari bavuye mu bihugu bya Karayibe no mu burengerazuba bw’Ubuhinde.
Umurumbuko w’Urusenda uboneka ngo iyo ruhinzwe neza ku buryo bwa kijyambere aho rushobora gutanga umusaruro ungana na toni 15 kuri hegitari 1. Imirimo yo gusarura ishobora gukorwa mu gihe cy’amezi ane kugeza kuri atandatu. Rusarurwa hakoreshejwe amaboko, rugashyirwa mu kintu gitunganyijwe neza. Ni byiza gushyira umusaruro mu gikoresho cya palasitike. Naho kuruhunika, urusenda rushobora kubikwa igihe kingana n’ibyumweru bitanu ahantu hari ubushyuhe bwa dogere 4 n’ubuhehere bugera kuri 95% naho urusenda rutunganyijwe (ruseye) rushobora kubikwa igihe kirekire.
source:orinfor

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