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Uruhare rwa Thomas Sankara mu mpinduka za Burkina Faso

Tariki ya 4 Kanama 1984 – tariki ya 4 Kanama 2014, imyaka 30 irashize icyari Haute Volta gihindutse Burkina Faso. Iki gihugu cyahawe iri zina na Thomas Sankara, umugabo wamenyekanye cyane muri Afurika kubera ibitekerezo bye, byafashije benshi mu mpinduka zidasanzwe.

Sankara ugarukwaho kenshi muri Afurika kuri iyi tariki ni muntu ki?
Thomas Isidore Noël Sankara yavukiye ahitwa Yako muri Burkina Faso mu gace kari gatuwe n’abayoboke b’idini ya Isilamu benshi, hari kuwa 21 Ukuboza 1949.
Sankara witabye Imana kuwa 15 Ukwakira 1987 yishwe mu mugambi wateguwe n’inshuti ye Blaise Compaoré, wari ugambiriye kumuhirika ku butegetsi, dore ko ataremeranyaga n’ibitekerezo bye (Sankara).
Ubuto bwa Sankara…
Thomas Sankara ni umuhungu wa Marguerite Sankara (Yapfuye kuwa 6 Werurwe, 2000) na Sambo Joseph Sankara (wavutse mu 1919 yitaba Imana kuwa 4 Nzeri, 2006) akaba yari umujandarume.
Sankara yavukiye mu muryango w’Abanyagaturika, yiga amashuri abanza i Gaoua n’ayisumbuye ahitwa Bobo-Dioulasso. Ise yarwanye mu gisirikare cy’u Bufaransa mu ntambara ya II y’Isi nyuma aza gutabwa muri yombi n’ingabo z’Abanazi. Umuryango wa Sankara wifuzaga ko yaba Padiri ariko ntibyashobotse. Sankara yahawe amasomo mu mashuri y’abihaye Imana muri Burkina Faso
Sankara mu gisirikare
Nyuma y’amahugurwa y’ibanze mu bya gisirikare yahawe ubwo yari mu mashuri yisumbuye mu 1966, ku myaka 19 Sankara yinjiye igisirikare neza, ndetse nyuma y’umwaka umwe yoherejwe muri Madagascar mu mahugurwa y’abasirikare bakuru (Officers) yabereye ahitwa Antsirabe; aha akaba yarabashije kwirebera n’amaso ye abari bigumuye kuri Guverinoma ya Philibert Tsiranana (Madagascar) mu myaka ya 1971 na 1972.
Uruhare rwa Thomas Sankara mu mpinduka za Burkina Faso
Thomas Sankara yari akiri muto
Muri Madagascar kandi, Sankara yabashije gusoma ibitabo bya Karl Marx na Vladimir Lenin, ibitekerezo yakuyemo bikaba byaramuyoboye muri politiki ye yakoze mu buzima bwe bwose.
Agaruka mu gihugu cye mu 1972, ahagana mu 1974 yarwanye mu ntambara y’imipaka hagati ya Burkina Faso na Mali. Aha yahabereye kirangiranwa kubera ubunararibonye yagaragaje ku rugamba rwari rubashyamiranyije na Mali ariko nyuma y’umwaka umwe yavuye mu by’intambara nyuma yo gusanga nta shingiro bifite, ahubwo ahita atangira gutekereza kuri politiki yo kwihangana.
Sankara kandi yanamenyekanye mu Murwa mukuru Ouagadougou kubera ko yari azi gucuranga gitari akaba yarabaye mu itsinda ricuranga ryitwa “Tout-à-Coup Jazz” ndetse akaba yaranatwaraga ipikipiki; ibi bikaba byaratumye agira isura y’umuntu wicisha bugufi muri rubanda.
Mu 1976, Sankara yabaye umuyobozi w’Ikigo gitanga amahugurwa ku bakomando cy’ahitwa Pô. Muri uwo mwaka ni bwo yahuye na Blaise Compaoré muri Morocco; icyo gihe kandi Burkina Faso ikaba yari iyobowe na Colonel Saye Zerbo.
Mu gihe cya Colonel Saye Zerbo, itsinda ry’abasirikare bakuru bakiri bato ba Burkina Faso bakoze ihuriro ry’ibanga "Communist Officers’ Group"; bamwe mu barimenyekanyemo cyane harimo Henri Zongo, Jean-Baptiste Boukary Lingani, Blaise Compaoré na Sankara.
Thomas Sankara muri Guverinoma
Sankara yagizwe Umunyamabanga wa Leta ushinzwe itumanaho muri Guverinoma yari iyobowe n’ingufu za Gisirikare aho hari muri Nzeri 1981, uyu mwanya ukaba waramwerekeje mu nama ya mbere y’abaminisitiri, ariko nyuma yaje kwegura kuwa 21 Mata 1982, nyuma yo gusanga ubutegetsi buriho burwanya umurimo, ahita atangaza ikiswe “Ibyago ku baniga umuturage” mu gifaransa “Malheur à ceux qui bâillonnent le peuple!"
Nyuma yo guhirika ku butegetsi Colonel Saye Zerbo mu Gushyingo, 1982, Maj. Dr Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo yahise aba Perezida, Sankara aba Minisitiri w’Intebe muri Mutarama 1983, ariko aza kwirukanwa kuwa 17 Gicurasi afungishwa ijisho nyuma yo gusurwa n’umuhungu wa Perezida w’u Bufaransa Jean-Christophe Mitterrand wari ushinzwe Afurika.
Uruhare rwa Thomas Sankara mu mpinduka za Burkina Faso
Thomas Sankara yakundaga kandi yari azi gucuranga gitari
Henri Zongo na Jean-Baptiste Boukary Lingani nabo icyo gihe batawe muri yombi, bituma habaho imyigaragambyo.
Thomas Sankara ku mwanya wa Perezida
Mu magambo ye bwite mu Kwakira 1984, Sankara yagize ati “Impinduramatwara muri Burkina Faso ishingiye ku bunararibonye bwa muntu uhereye ku ihumeka rya mbere ry’Ikiremwamuntu. Turashaka kuba abaragwa b’impinduramatwara z’Isi, b’intambara zose zo kubohora ibihugu bikiri mu nzira y’Amajyambere. Twakuye isomo ku mpinduramatwara y’Abanyamerika. Impinduka zo mu Bufaransa zatwigishije uburenganzira bwa muntu. Impinduramatwara y’Ukwakira yatumye haba intsinzi n’igerwaho ry’inzozi z’ubutabera i Paris.”
“Coup d’Etat” yateguwe na Blaise Compaoré yatumye Sankara aba Perezida kuwa 4 Kanama, 1983 afite imyaka 33. Iyo kudeta yashyigikiwe na Libya icyo gihe yari mu ntambara n’u Bufaransa muri Chad.
Sankara yisanze aharanira impinduramatwara akaba yarafashwaga n’urugero rwa Fidel Castro na Che Guevara bo muri Cuba ndetse n’umuyobozi w’ingabo muri Ghana, Jerry Rawlings.
Sankara yateje imbere ibitekerezo by’Ishyaka rya Demokarasi riharanira impinduka rizwi ku izina rya "Democratic and Popular Revolution" (Révolution démocratique et populaire, cyangwa RDP). Izi mpinduka zatangijwe na Sankara zari zigamije kurwanya ubuhake ndetse akaba yaranabigaragaje mu ijambo yavuze kuwa 2 Kanama 1983.
Politiki ye yari igamije kurwanya ruswa, guteza imbera iterwa ry’amashyamba, kurwanya inzara no kwibanda ku burezi n’ubuzima.
Gukuraho ubutegetsi bw’abashefu
Guverinoma iyobowe na Sankara yakuyeho byinshi mu byagenerwaga benshi mu bategetsi b’amoko, birimo nko guhabwa amaturo no kubakorera. Icyo gihe hahise hashyirwaho komite zishinzwe kurinda Impinduramatwara ndetse zinahabwa intwaro.
Tariki ya 4 Kanama 1984, ku isabukuru ya mbere afashe ubutegetsi yahise yita iki gihugu Burkina Faso, bivuze “Igihugu cy’abahagaze bemye” mu ndimi za Moré na Djula, zikoreshwa cyane muri Burkina Faso. Yanatangije ibendera rishya anandika indirimbo nshya y’igihugu yiswe «Une Seule Nuit». Burkina Faso ikaba yari isanzwe yitwa Haute Volta.
Uburenganzira bw’abagore n’Icyorezo cya SIDA
Sankara agaruka ku burenganzira bw’abagore n’icyorezo cya SIDA yagize ati “Impinduka no kwibohora kw’abagore birajyana. Ntitwavuga uburenganzira bw’igitsinagore nk’igikorwa cy’impuhwe cyangwa se nk’impuhwe z’ikiremwamuntu. Ni ikintu cya ngombwa mu gushimangira impinduramatwara. Abagore bafite ikindi kimwe cya kabiri cy’ikirere.”
Guteza imbere igitsinagore byari mu ntego za Sankara na Guverinoma ye yari igizwe n’umubare munini w’abagore. Guverinoma ye yakuyeho ibyo gukata abagore imwe mu myanya y’igitsina cyabo, kubashyingira ku ngufu no kubashakiraho abandi bagore; ibi bikaba byarajyanaga no kubashyira mu myanya yo hejuru no kubashishikariza kuva mu rugo ndetse no kuguma mu mashuri kabone n’ubwo baba batwite.
Sankara yashyizeho uburyo bwo kuboneza urubyaro anashishikariza abagabo kujya bajya ku isoko no guteka hagamijwe kubumvisha uko imirimo y’abagore imera. Ikindi ni uko Sankara yabaye umuyobozi wa mbere muri Afurika washyize abagore muri Guverinoma ndetse no mu gisirikare.
Guverinoma ya Sankara ni yo ya mbere muri Afurika yagaragaje SIDA nk’icyorezo gikomeye gihangayikishije Afurika.
Intambara na Mali yakuruwe n’ibarura
Mu 1985, Burkina Faso yateguye ibarura rusange. Abakoraga iryo barura baribeshye bajya mu nkambi ziherereye muri Mali, icyo gihe Guverinoma ya Mali ihita itangaza ko havogerewe ubusugire bw’igihugu ahitwa Agacher. Mali yatangiye gusaba abayobozi b’Afurika kotsa igitutu Sankara, nuko umunsi umwe kuri Noheli yo mu 1985, Burkina Faso yahise yinjira mu ntambara na Mali imara iminsi itanu hapfamo abagera ku 100 abandi barakomereka. Abenshi mu bapfuye baguye mu isoko ubwo indege y’intambara ya Mali yateraga igisasu mu isoko. Aya makimbirane azwi ku izina ry’”Intambara yo kuri Noheli” muri Burkina Faso.
Ibyaranze Sankara
Ikirangantego cya Burkina Faso cyo ku butegetsi bwa Sankara hagati ya 1984 na 1987, cyari kigizwe n’agafuni gashamikanye n’imbunda ya Karacinikovu (AK-47) cyanditsemo amagambo agira ati “Gukunda igihugu cyangwa urupfu, tuzatsinda”
Mu byaranze kwicisha bugufi kwe, Sankara yakunze no kugira ibikorwa byatumye amenyekana bituma anavugwa cyane mu itangazamakuru mpuzamahanga na Guverinoma ye.
Bimwe muri ibyo bikorwa…
Sankara yagurishije imodoka zo mu bwoko bwa Benz Mercedes z’abaminisitiri asaba ko bose bazajya bakoresha izo mu bwoko bwa Renault 5 zari zihendutse cyane muri Burkina Faso.
Yagabanije imishahara y’abakozi ba Leta bahembwaga neza, harimo n’umushahara we ndetse anabuza ibyo gukoresha abashoferi ba Guverinoma no kugura amatike y’indege yo mu cyiciro cya mbere.
Sankara yasaranganyije ubutaka mu bakene icyo gihe umusaruro w’ingano uva kuri biro 1700 kuri hegitare ugera kuri 3800 kuri hegitare bituma igihugu cyihaza mu biribwa.
Yarwanyije inkunga z’amahanga agira ati “ukugaburira aranakuyobora”.
Mu nama zitandukanye z’Afurika Yunze ubumwe yakunze kugaruka ku bukoloni bushya bugenda bwinjira muri Afurika bunyuze mu bucuruzi bw’Abanyaburayi ndetse n’inkunga.
Umugore wa Sankara, Mariam Sankara, yagize ati "Thomas yari azi uko azereka abaturage be uko bihesha agaciro ndetse no kwishimira uko bari binyuze mu mbaraga zabo, umuhate, kwiyubaha n’umurimo. Ibindi birenga ku mugabo wanjye ni kuvugisha ukuri.”
Sankara yafashe ububiko bw’ibiryo I Ouagadougou bigenerwa abasirikare abuhindura iguriro rya buri wese. Iyi ikaba ari yo “Super Market” yabaye muri Burkina Faso bwa mbere.
Yategetse abakozi ba Leta bose kwitanga umushahara w’ukwezi kumwe ujya mu bikorwa bigamije amajyambere y’abaturage.
Yanze gukoresha kirimatizeri (Air Conditioner) mu biro bye bitewe n’uko yasangaga ibyo ari iby’abaherwe nyamara rubanda nyamwinshi bitabageraho.
Nka Perezida, yagabanije umushahara we w’ukwezi awugeza ku madorari y’Amerika 450 anagumana mu mutungo we imodoka imwe, amagare ane, gitari eshatu na Firigo imwe n’indi yari yaramenetse.
Imibereho ya Sankara yoroheje
Kubera ko Sankara yakundaga gutwara ipikipiki, yishyiriyeho itsinda ry’abagore ritwara amapikipiki ryari mu bashinzwe umutekano we.
Sankara yari azwiho gutembera I Ouagadougou ari mu modoka ye nta barinzi afite yambaye imyenda ye ya gisirikare na pisitori.
Abajijwe impamvu atifuje ko igishushanyo cye gishyirwa ahantu nyabagendwa, Sankara yasubije muri aya magambo ati “Hari miliyoni zirindwi za ba Thomas Sankara.”
Kubera ko yari azi gucuranga gitari neza, Sankara yiyandikiye ku giti cye indirimbo yubahiriza igihugu.
Uburenganzira bwa muntu
Human Right Watch yakunze kuvuga ko Sankara ahonyora uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu harimo gutanga ibihano ndengakamere, gufunga abantu ku buryo bwa hato na hato no guhohotera abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi. Mu 1987, umuryango wa Guverinoma y’Abongereza, Oxfam wagaraje ihohoterwa n’ifungwa ry’abayobozi b’ishyirahamwe ry’ubucuruzi. Mu 1984, Abantu barindwi bahoze muri Guverinoma zabanje bafunzwe bashinjwa kugambanira ubutegetsi buriho baza kwicwa nyuma y’urubanza.
Uwo mwaka kandi kwigaragambya kw’abarimu kwatumye abagera ku 2,500 birukanwa kuva ubwo imiryango itegamiye kuri Leta yatangiye kubangamirwa n’ibindi.
Sankara, Che Guevara wa Afurika
Thomas Sankara yagize ati “Che Guevara yatwigishije kwigirira icyizere, kwigirira icyizere mu bikorwa byacu. Yatubibyemo ko intambara ari yo mahitamo yacu. Yari umuturage wo mu isi yigenga twese turi guharanira kubaka. Ni yo mpamvu tuvuga tuti Che Guevara ni Umunyafurika akaba n’Umunyaburkinafaso.”
Sankara, ukunze kugaragazwa nka Che Guevara wa Afurika yagenderaga ku bitekerezo bya Guevara (1928–1967) haba mu myambarire no mu mibereho. Mu myambarire, Sankara yiganye Guevara ahitamo kwambara imwe mu myambaro iteye nk’iye, mu mibereho yiyemeza gusigarana ubutunzi buke, n’umushahara muto ubwo yari ku butegetsi. Aba bagabo bombi bari inshuti za Fidel Castro (Sankara yasuwe na Castro mu 1987), bose bakaba baraharaniraga isaranganywa ry’ubukungu.
Aba bagabo kandi bishwe bafite imyaka mike kuko yari ikiri muri za 30 bishwe n’abo batavuga rumwe. Guevara yari afite 39, Sankara 38.
Urupfu rwa Sankara
Tariki ya 15 Ukwakira 1987 Sankara yishwe n’itsinda ryitwaje intwaro riri hamwe n’abandi bayobozi bagera kuri 12, akaba ari Coup d’Etat yari yateguwe n’uwari inshuti ye Blaise Compaoré. Sankara yishwe ageza ijambo kuri rubanda.
Zimwe mu mpamvu zatanzwe zivugwa harimo iy’uko umubano wa Burkina Faso n’ibihugu by’ibituranyi wari warazambye aho Compaoré yavugaga ko Sankara yazambije umubano n’ibihugu by’amahanga birimo u Bufaransa na Cote d’Ivoire.
Prince Johnson, wahoze ari umurwanyi muri Liberia akaba yari inshuti na Charles Taylor, yabwiye Komisiyo y’ukuri n’ubwiyunge ko urupfu rwa Sankara rwari rushyigikiwe na Charles Taylor.
Nyuma y’iyo Coup d’Etat, ishyaka rye ryakoze imirwano yamaze iminsi mike.
Umurambo wa Sankara warashwanyagujwe utabwa ahantu hatamenyekanye. Umuryango we wahise uhunga, Compaore yigarurira byose ndetse anahita ahindura politiki za Sankara.
Umurage yasigiye Afurika
Uwitwa Antonio de Figueiredo yagize ati “Afurika n’Isi muri rusange ntibirakira ibikomere byasigiwe n’urupfu rwa Sankara nk’uko tutazibagirwa urupfu rwa Patrice Lumumba, Kwame Nkrumah, Eduardo Mondlane, Amílcar Cabral, Steve Biko, Samora Machel, ndetse vuba aha na John Garang, muri bake twavuga. Mu gihe inkozi z’ikibi zitigeze zikoresha uburyo bumwe mu kwica aba Banyafurika b’intangarugero, ahubwo zahisemo kuyoborwa n’intego imwe yo kugumisha Afurika mu minyururu.”
Nyuma y’imyaka 20 yishwe, kuwa 15 Ukwakira, 2007, Thomas Sankara yibutswe mu mihango yabereye muri Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, Niger, Tanzania, Burundi, France, Canada, na USA.
Uruhare rw’u Bufaransa mu rupfu rwa Sankara ntiruzwi neza
Mu myaka ibiri ishize, umudepite w’Umufaransa , André Chassaigne, yavuze ko azotsa igitutu Guverinoma y’u Bufaransa igashyiraho Komisiyo ishinzwe gucukumbura iby’iyicwa rya Thomas Sankara. Chassaigne, uri mu ishyaka ry’abakominisite yavuze ko ari gukurikirana ibaruwa yanditswe mu 2011 n’abadepite 12 bo muri Burkina Faso yanditswe bashaka kumenya uruhare rw’u Bufaransa.
Chaissaigne aganira n’abanyamakuru yagize ati «U Bufaransa, ku kigeranyo utamenya, bwagize uruhare mu rupfu rwa Sankara…Ntibyumvikana gusiga mu gihirahiro abaturage ba Burkina Faso ku byabaye. »
Shyiraho Igitekerezo!

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